Hemorrhagic Transformation in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Quantitative Systematic Review Honig, Asaf; Percy, Jennifer; Sepehry, Amir; Gomez, Alejandra G.; Field, Thalia; Benavente, Oscar R
The prevalence and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after acute ischemic stroke HT have not been adequately delineated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify English-language prospective observational MEDLINE and EMBASE-listed reports of acute ischemic stroke with HT published from 1985–2017. Studies that used the ECASS-2 definitions of hemorrhagic transformation subtypes, hemorrhagic infarction (HI), and parenchymal hematoma (PH) were included. Patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) were compared with those who did not receive thrombolysis. A total of 65 studies with 17,259 patients met inclusion criteria. Overall, HT prevalence was 27%; 32% in patients receiving IV-tPA vs. 20% in those without. Overall PH prevalence was 9%; 12% in IV-tPA treated patients vs. 5% in those without. HT was associated with a history of atrial fibrillation (OR 2.94) and use of anticoagulants (OR 2.47). HT patients had higher NIHSS (Hedge’s-G 0.96) and larger infarct volume (diffusion-weighted MRI, Hedge’s-G 0.8). In IV-tPA treated patients, PH correlated with antiplatelet (OR 3) and statin treatment (OR 4). HT (OR 3) and PH (OR 8) were associated with a poor outcome at 90-day (mRS 5–6). Hemorrhagic transformation is a frequent complication of acute ischemic stroke and is associated with poor outcome. Recognition of risk factors for HT and PH may reduce their incidence and severity.
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