Cholangitis Definition and Treatment after Kasai Hepatoportoenterostomy for Biliary Atresia: A Delphi Process and International Expert Panel Calinescu, Ana M.; Madadi-Sanjani, Omid; Mack, Cara; Schreiber, Richard A.; Superina, Riccardo; Kelly, Deirdre; Petersen, Claus; Wildhaber, Barbara E.
(1) Background: Acute cholangitis during the first year after Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) has a negative impact on patient and native liver survival. There are no consistent guidelines for the definition, treatment, and prophylaxis of cholangitis after HPE. The aim of this study was to develop definition, treatment, and prophylaxis guidelines to allow for expeditious management and for standardization in reporting. (2) Methods: the Delphi method, an extensive literature review, iterative rounds of surveys, and expert panel discussions were used to establish definition, treatment, and prophylaxis guidelines for cholangitis in the first year after HPE. (3) Results: Eight elements (pooled into two groups: clinical and laboratory/imaging) were identified to define cholangitis after HPE. The final proposed definitions for suspected and confirmed cholangitis are a combination of one element, respectively, two elements from each group; furthermore, the finding of a positive blood culture was added to the definition of confirmed cholangitis. The durations for prophylaxis and treatment of suspected and confirmed cholangitis were uniformly agreed upon by the experts. (4) Conclusions: for the first time, an international consensus was found for guidelines for definition, treatment, and prophylaxis for cholangitis during the first year after Kasai HPE. Applicability will need further prospective multicentered studies.
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