Metabolomic Fingerprinting for the Detection of Early-Stage Lung Cancer: From the Genome to the Metabolome Haince, Jean-François; Joubert, Philippe; Bach, Horacio; Ahmed Bux, Rashid; Tappia, Paramjit S.; Ramjiawan, Bram
The five-year survival rate of lung cancer patients is very low, mainly because most newly diagnosed patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Therefore, early diagnosis is key to the successful treatment and management of lung cancer. Unfortunately, early detection methods of lung cancer are not ideal. In this brief review, we described early detection methods such as chest X-rays followed by bronchoscopy, sputum analysis followed by cytological analysis, and low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). In addition, we discussed the potential of metabolomic fingerprinting, compared to that of other biomarkers, including molecular targets, as a low-cost, high-throughput blood-based test that is both feasible and affordable for early-stage lung cancer screening of at-risk populations. Accordingly, we proposed a paradigm shift to metabolomics as an alternative to molecular and proteomic-based markers in lung cancer screening, which will enable blood-based routine testing and be accessible to those patients at the highest risk for lung cancer.
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