Implementation of a diabetes prevention program within two community sites: a qualitative assessment Dineen, Tineke; Bean, Corliss; Jung, Mary
Background Despite numerous translations of diabetes prevention programs, implementation evaluations are rarely conducted. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation process and multilevel contextual factors as an evidence-based diabetes prevention program was implemented into two local community organization sites to inform future scale-up. To build the science of implementation, context and strategies must be identified and explored to understand their impact. Methods The program was a brief-counseling diet and exercise modification program for individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A 1-year collaborative planning process with a local not-for-profit community organization co-developed an implementation plan to translate the program. A pragmatic epistemology guided this research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff who delivered the program (n = 8), and a focus group was completed with implementation support staff (n = 5) at both community sites. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a template approach. The consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) is a well-researched multilevel implementation determinant framework and was used to guide the analysis of this study. Within the template approach, salient themes were first inductively identified, then identified themes were deductively linked to CFIR constructs. Results Implementation strategies used were appropriate, well-received, and promoted effective implementation. The implementation plan had an impact on multiple levels as several CFIR constructs were identified from all five domains of the framework: (a) process, (b) intervention characteristics, (c) outer setting, (d) inner setting, and (e) individual characteristics. Specifically, results revealed the collaborative 1-year planning process, program components and structure, level of support, and synergy between program and context were important factors in the implementation. Conclusion This study offers insights into the process of implementing a community-based diabetes prevention program in two local sites. Successful implementation benefited from a fully engaged, partnered approach to planning, and subsequently executing, an implementation effort. The CFIR was a useful and thorough framework to evaluate and identify multilevel contextual factors impacting implementation. Results can be used to inform future implementation and scale-up efforts.
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Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)