Deep Transfer Learning for Parkinson’s Disease Monitoring by Image-Based Representation of Resting-State EEG Using Directional Connectivity Arasteh, Emad; Mahdizadeh, Ailar; Mirian, Maryam S.; Lee, Soojin; McKeown, Martin J.; McKeown, Martin
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by abnormal brain oscillations that can change rapidly. Tracking neural alternations with high temporal resolution electrophysiological monitoring methods such as EEG can lead to valuable information about alterations observed in PD. Concomitantly, there have been advances in the high-accuracy performance of deep neural networks (DNNs) using few-patient data. In this study, we propose a method to transform resting-state EEG data into a deep latent space to classify PD subjects from healthy cases. We first used a general orthogonalized directed coherence (gOPDC) method to compute directional connectivity (DC) between all pairwise EEG channels in four frequency bands (Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) and then converted the DC maps into 2D images. We then used the VGG-16 architecture (trained on the ImageNet dataset) as our pre-trained model, enlisted weights of convolutional layers as initial weights, and fine-tuned all layer weights with our data. After training, the classification achieved 99.62% accuracy, 100% precision, 99.17% recall, 0.9958 F1 score, and 0.9958 AUC averaged for 10 random repetitions of training/evaluating on the proposed deep transfer learning (DTL) network. Using the latent features learned by the network and employing LASSO regression, we found that latent features (as opposed to the raw DC values) were significantly correlated with five clinical indices routinely measured: left and right finger tapping, left and right tremor, and body bradykinesia. Our results demonstrate the power of transfer learning and latent space derivation for the development of oscillatory biomarkers in PD.
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