Gene regulatory network analysis defines transcriptome landscape with alternative splicing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells during replicative senescence Ohori, Momoko; Nakayama, Yusuke; Ogasawara-Shimizu, Mari; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Aparicio, Samuel, 1963-; Araki, Shinsuke
Background Endothelial cell senescence is the state of permanent cell cycle arrest and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. However, a comprehensive understanding of the gene regulatory network, including genome-wide alternative splicing machinery, involved in endothelial cell senescence is lacking. Results We thoroughly described the transcriptome landscape of replicative senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Genes with high connectivity showing a monotonic expression increase or decrease with the culture period were defined as hub genes in the co-expression network. Computational network analysis of these genes led to the identification of canonical and non-canonical senescence pathways, such as E2F and SIRT2 signaling, which were down-regulated in lipid metabolism, and chromosome organization processes pathways. Additionally, we showed that endothelial cell senescence involves alternative splicing. Importantly, the first and last exon types of splicing, as observed in FLT1 and ACACA, were preferentially altered among the alternatively spliced genes during endothelial senescence. We further identified novel microexons in PRUNE2 and PSAP, each containing 9 nt, which were altered within the specific domain during endothelial senescence. Conclusions These findings unveil the comprehensive transcriptome pathway and novel signaling regulated by RNA processing, including gene expression and splicing, in replicative endothelial senescence.
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