Successful treatment of a kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 and late-onset Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia Peng, Jing; Ni, Ming; Du, Dunfeng; Lu, Yanjun; Song, Juan; Liu, Weiyong; Shen, Na; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Vallance, Bruce A.; et al.
Background Solid transplant patients are susceptible to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). While the vast majority of PJP cases occur within the first 6 months after transplantation, very few PJP cases are seen beyond 1 year post-transplantation (late-onset PJP). PJP and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2) share quite a few common clinical manifestations and imaging findings, making the diagnosis of PJP often underappreciated during the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, only 1 case of kidney transplantation who developed COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has been reported, but this patient also suffered from many other infections and died from respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A successful treatment of kidney patients with COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has not been reported. Case presentation We present a case of a 55-year-old male kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 who also developed late-onset PJP. He received a combined treatment strategy, including specific anti-pneumocystis therapy, symptomatic supportive therapy, adjusted immunosuppressive therapy, and use of antiviral drugs/antibiotics, ending with a favorable outcome. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of prompt and differential diagnosis of PJP in kidney transplant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to clarify if kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 could be prone to develop late-onset PJP and how these patients should be treated.
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