Carbon Capture Systems for Building-Level Heating Systems—A Socio-Economic and Environmental Evaluation Liyanage, Don Rukmal; Hewage, Kasun; Karunathilake, Hirushie; Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Sadiq, Rehan
The energy consumption of buildings contributes significantly to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy use for space and water heating in buildings causes a major portion of these emissions. Natural gas (NG) is one of the dominant fuels used for building heating, emitting GHG emissions directly to the atmosphere. Many studies have been conducted on improving energy efficiency and using cleaner energy sources in buildings. However, implementing carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) on NG building heating systems is overlooked in the literature. CCUS technologies have proved their potential to reduce GHG emissions in fossil fuel power plants. However, their applicability for building-level applications has not been adequately established. A critical literature review was conducted to understand the feasibility and viability of adapting CCUS technologies to co-function in building heating systems. This study investigated the technical requirements, environmental and socio-economic impacts, and the drivers and barriers towards implementing building-level CCUS technologies. The findings indicated that implementing building-level CCUS technologies has significant overall benefits despite the marginal increase in energy consumption, operational costs, and capital costs. The information presented in this paper is valuable to academics, building owners and managers, innovators, investors, and policy makers involved in the clean energy sector.
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