The Manufacture and Characterization of Silver Diammine Fluoride and Silver Salt Crosslinked Nanocrystalline Cellulose Films as Novel Antibacterial Materials Jackson, John; Dietrich, Claudia; Shademani, Ali; Manso, Adriana
There is an unmet need for biocompatible, anti-infective, and mechanically strong hydrogels. This study investigated the use of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), polysaccharides, and nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) to deliver silver in a controlled manner for possible use against oral or wound bacteria. Silver was included in solvent cast films as silver diammine fluoride (SDF) or as nitrate, sulphate, or acetate salts. Hydrogel formation was assessed by swelling determinations and silver release was measured using inductively coupled plasma methods. Antibacterial studies were performed using Gram-positive and negative bacteria turbidity assays. PVA formed homogenous, strong films with SDF and swelled gently (99% hydrolyzed) or vigorously with dissolution (88% hydrolyzed) and released silver slowly or quickly, respectively. CNC-SDF films swelled over a week and formed robust hydrogels whereas CNC alone (no silver) disintegrated after two days. SDF loaded CNC films released silver slowly over 9 days whereas films crosslinked with silver salts were less robust and swelled and released silver more quickly. All silver loaded films showed good antibacterial activity. CNC may be crosslinked with silver in the form of SDF (or any soluble silver salt) to form a robust hydrogel suitable for dental use such as for exposed periodontal debridement areas.
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