The Role of Ultrasound for the Personalized Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Fietzek, Urban M.; Nene, Devavrat; Schramm, Axel; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Košutzká, Zuzana; Walter, Uwe; Wissel, Jörg; Berweck, Steffen; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bäumer, Tobias
The visualization of the human body has frequently been groundbreaking in medicine. In the last few years, the use of ultrasound (US) imaging has become a well-established procedure for botulinum toxin therapy in people with cervical dystonia (CD). It is now undisputed among experts that some of the most relevant muscles in this indication can be safely injected under visual US guidance. This review will explore the method from basic technical considerations, current evidence to conceptual developments of the phenomenology of cervical dystonia. We will review the implications of introducing US to our understanding of muscle function and anatomy of common cervical dystonic patterns. We suggest a flow chart for the use of US to achieve a personalized treatment of people with CD. Thus, we hope to contribute a resource that is useful in clinical practice and that stimulates the ongoing development of this valuable technique.
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