A methodology for dynamic material characterizations via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Lesack, Nikolai; Fredeen, Naomi V.; Jirasek, Andrew; Holzman, Jonathan
In this work, the challenges of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy on complex (multilayer) samples with time-varying (dynamic) characteristics are addressed. The challenges appear in characterizations of the refractive index and extinction coefficient, as etalon artifacts due to internal reflections, and are accentuated in multilayer structures having dynamic and low-loss materials, such as biomolecular materials. This is because nonidealities may form as airgaps at the interfaces and as inhomogeneity in the bulk. The proposed methodology addresses the challenges by introducing a generalized model that accommodates dynamic formation of airgaps and inhomogeneity. It is shown that the generality of the model allows it to mitigate etalon artifacts and yield a highly accurate representation of the material characteristics, with low systematic error, even for low-loss materials. The methodology is applied to characterizations of quartz and glucose in the THz spectrum to see fine detail in the characteristics of quartz and the crystallization of glucose.
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