UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Impact of Solidification on Inclusion Morphology in ESR and PESR Remelted Martensitic Stainless Steel Ingots Persson, Ewa Sjöqvist; Brorson, Sofia; Mitchell, A. (Alec); Jönsson, Pär G.


This study focuses on the impact of solidification on the inclusion morphologies in different sizes of production-scale electro-slag remelting (ESR) and electro-slag remelting under a protected pressure-controlled atmosphere, (PESR), ingots, in a common martensitic stainless steel grade. The investigation has been carried out to increase the knowledge of the solidification and change in inclusion morphologies during ESR and PESR remelting. In order to optimize process routes for different steel grades, it is important to define the advantages of different processes. A comparison is made between an electrode, ESR, and PESR ingots with different production-scale ingot sizes, from 400 mm square to 1050 mm in diameter. The electrode and two of the smallest ingots are from the same electrode charge. The samples are taken from both the electrode, ingots, and rolled/forged material. The solidification structure, dendrite arm spacing, chemical analyzes, and inclusion number on ingots and/or forged/rolled material are studied. The results show that the larger the ingot and the further towards the center of the ingot, the larger inclusions are found. As long as an ingot solidifies with a columnar dendritic structure (DS), the increase in inclusion number and size with ingot diameter is approximately linear. However, at the ingot size (1050 mm in diameter in this study) when the center of the ingot converts to solidification in the equiaxial mode (EQ), the increase in number and size of the inclusions is much higher. The transition between a dendritic and an equiaxial solidification in the center of the ingots in this steel grade takes place in the region between the ingot diameters of 800 and 1050 mm.

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