The Impact of Geography in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Retrospective Population Based Study Yu, Irene S.; Liu, Shiru L.; Zaborska, Valeriya; Raycraft, Tyler; Gill, Sharlene; Lim, Howard; Davies, Janine
Background: The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes different therapeutic modalities and multidisciplinary tumor board reviews. The impact of geography and treatment center type (quaternary vs. non-quaternary) on access to care is unclear. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on HCC patients who received sorafenib in British Columbia from 2008 to 2016. Patients were grouped by Statistics Canada population center (PC) size criteria: large PC (LPC), medium PC (MPC), and small PC (SPC). Access to specialists, receipt of liver-directed therapies, and survival outcomes were compared between the groups. Results: Of 286 patients, the geographical distribution was: LPC: 75%; MPC: 16%; and SPC: 9%. A higher proportion of Asians (51% vs. 9% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), Child–Pugh A (94% vs. 83% vs. 80%; p = 0.022), and hepatitis B (37% vs. 15% vs. 4%; p < 0.001) was observed in LPC vs. MPC vs. SPC, respectively. LPC patients were more likely referred to a hepatologist (62% vs. 48% vs. 40%; p = 0.031) and undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (43% vs. 24% vs. 24%; p = 0.018). Sixty percent were treated at a quaternary center, and the median overall survival (OS) was higher for patients treated at a quaternary vs. non-quaternary center (28.0 vs. 14.6 months, respectively; p < 0.001) but similar when compared by PC size. Treatment at a quaternary center predicted an improved survival on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 0.652; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.503–0.844; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Geography did not appear to impact OS but patients from LPC were more likely to be referred to hepatology and undergo TACE. Treatment at a quaternary center was associated with an improved survival.
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