Transporters at the Interface between Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Amino Acid Metabolism Hewton, Keeley G.; Johal, Amritpal S.; Parker, Seth J.
Mitochondria are central organelles that coordinate a vast array of metabolic and biologic functions important for cellular health. Amino acids are intricately linked to the bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and homeostatic function of the mitochondrion and require specific transporters to facilitate their import, export, and exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here we review key cellular metabolic outputs of eukaryotic mitochondrial amino acid metabolism and discuss both known and unknown transporters involved. Furthermore, we discuss how utilization of compartmentalized amino acid metabolism functions in disease and physiological contexts. We examine how improved methods to study mitochondrial metabolism, define organelle metabolite composition, and visualize cellular gradients allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how transporters facilitate compartmentalized metabolism.
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