Combined Metabolite and Transcriptome Profiling Reveals the Norisoprenoid Responses in Grape Berries to Abscisic Acid and Synthetic Auxin He, Lei; Meng, Nan; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Wang, Yu; Sun, Qi; Li, Xiang-Yi; Dong, Zhi-Gang; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong
The abscisic acid (ABA) increase and auxin decline are both indicators of ripening initiation in grape berry, and norisoprenoid accumulation also starts at around the onset of ripening. However, the relationship between ABA, auxin, and norisoprenoids remains largely unknown, especially at the transcriptome level. To investigate the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the ABA and synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on norisoprenoid production, we performed time-series GC-MS and RNA-seq analyses on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from pre-veraison to ripening. Higher levels of free norisoprenoids were found in ABA-treated mature berries in two consecutive seasons, and both free and total norisoprenoids were significantly increased by NAA in one season. The expression pattern of known norisoprenoid-associated genes in all samples and the up-regulation of specific alternative splicing isoforms of VviDXS and VviCRTISO in NAA-treated berries were predicted to contribute to the norisoprenoid accumulation in ABA and NAA-treated berries. Combined weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) analysis suggested that VviGATA26, and the previously identified switch genes of myb RADIALIS (VIT_207s0005g02730) and MAD-box (VIT_213s0158g00100) could be potential regulators of norisoprenoid accumulation. The positive effects of ABA on free norisoprenoids and NAA on total norisoprenoid accumulation were revealed in the commercially ripening berries. Since the endogenous ABA and auxin are sensitive to environmental factors, this finding provides new insights to develop viticultural practices for managing norisoprenoids in vineyards in response to changing climates.
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