Somatostatin Ameliorates β-Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity via the Regulation of CRMP2 Phosphorylation and Calcium Homeostasis in SH-SY5Y Cells Paik, Seungil; Somvanshi, Rishi; Oliveira, Helen A.; Zou, Shenglong; Kumar, Ujendra
Somatostatin is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways and affords neuroprotection in response to neurotoxins. In the present study, we investigated the role of Somatostatin-14 (SST) in cell viability and the regulation of phosphorylation of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) (Ser522) via the blockade of Ca²⁺ accumulation, along with the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and Calpain activation in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Cell Viability and Caspase 3/7 assays suggest that the presence of SST ameliorates mitochondrial stability and cell survival pathways while augmenting pro-apoptotic pathways activated by Aβ. SST inhibits the phosphorylation of CRMP2 at Ser522 site, which is primarily activated by CDK5. Furthermore, SST effectively regulates Ca²⁺ influx in the presence of Aβ, directly affecting the activity of calpain in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. We also demonstrated that SSTR2 mediates the protective effects of SST. In conclusion, our results highlight the regulatory role of SST in intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis. The neuroprotective role of SST via axonal regeneration and synaptic integrity is corroborated by regulating changes in CRMP2; however, SST-mediated changes in the blockade of Ca²⁺ influx, calpain expression, and toxicity did not correlate with CDK5 expression and p35/25 accumulation. To summarize, our findings suggest two independent mechanisms by which SST mediates neuroprotection and confirms the therapeutic implications of SST in AD as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases where the effective regulation of calcium homeostasis is required for a better prognosis.
Item Citations and Data
CC BY 4.0