Exome sequencing enables diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in patient with eosinophilic esophagitis and severe atopy Modi, Bhavi P.; Del Bel, Kate L.; Lin, Susan; Sharma, Mehul; Richmond, Phillip A.; van Karnebeek, Clara D. M.; Chan, Edmond S.; Avinashi, Vishal; Rehmus, Wingfield E.; Biggs, Catherine M.; et al.
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity between different ectodermal dysplasia types and evidence of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity increase the potential for misdiagnosis. We describe a family with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) presenting with variable expressivity of symptoms between affected siblings. In addition to the classical signs of hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia, the index patient—a 5 year old boy, also presented with a severe atopy phenotype that was not observed in the other two affected brothers. Exome sequencing in the index and the mother identified a pathogenic nonsense variant in EDA (NM_001399.4: c.766 C>T; p. Gln256Ter). This study highlights how exome sequencing was crucial in establishing a precise molecular diagnosis of XLHED by enabling us to rule out other differential diagnoses including NEMO deficiency syndrome, that was initially presented as a clinical diagnosis to the family.
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