Differential Response of Mycorrhizal Plants to Tomato bushy stunt virus and Tomato mosaic virus Infection Khoshkhatti, Neda; Eini, Omid; Koolivand, Davoud; Pogiatzis, Antreas; Klironomos, John; Pakpour, Sepideh
Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are important economic pathogens in tomato fields. Rhizoglomus irregulare is a species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus that provides nutrients to host plants. To understand the effect of R. irregulare on the infection by TBSV/ToMV in tomato plants, in a completely randomized design, five treatments, including uninfected control plants without AM fungi (C), uninfected control plants with AM fungi (M) TBSV/ToMV-infected plants without AM fungi (V), TBSV/ToMV-infected plants before mycorrhiza (VM) inoculation, and inoculated plants with mycorrhiza before TBSV/ToMV infection (MV), were studied. Factors including viral RNA accumulation and expression of Pathogenesis Related proteins (PR) coding genes including PR1, PR2, and PR3 in the young leaves were measured. For TBSV, a lower level of virus accumulation and a higher expression of PR genes in MV plants were observed compared to V and VM plants. In contrast, for ToMV, a higher level of virus accumulation and a lower expression of PR genes in MV plants were observed as compared to V and VM plants. These results indicated that mycorrhizal symbiosis reduces or increases the viral accumulation possibly via the regulation of PR genes in tomato plants.
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