Origin of the Inclusions in Production-Scale Electrodes, ESR Ingots, and PESR Ingots in a Martensitic Stainless Steel Sjöqvist Persson, Ewa; Karasev, Andrey; Mitchell, A. (Alec); Jönsson, Pär G
The focus of the study was to define the origin of the inclusions in production-scale electro-slag remelting, (ESR) and electro-slag remelting under a protected pressure controlled atmosphere, (PESR), ingots. The inclusion characteristics in production samples were studied using both polished sample surfaces (two-dimensional (2-D) investigations) and inclusions extracted from steel samples by electrolytic extraction (three-dimensional (3-D) investigations) using SEM in combination with EDS. The results were compared to results from previously reported laboratory-, pilot-, and production-scale trials including electrode, remelted, and conventional ingots. The results show that primary, semi-secondary, and secondary inclusions exist in the remelted ingots. The most probable inclusion to survive from the electrode is a MgO-Al2O3 (spinel). It was also found that the ESR/PESR process slag acts in a similar way to a calcium treatment modification of alumina inclusions. On the whole, the most significant finding is that the overall cleanliness of the electrode including the inclusions in the electrode has an influence on the inclusion content of the ESR and PESR ingots.
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