Emerging nanomedicines for effective breast cancer immunotherapy Bahreyni, Amirhossein; Mohamud, Yasir; Luo, Honglin
Breast cancer continues to be the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women, putting their life in jeopardy. Cancer immunotherapy is a novel approach with the ability to boost the host immune system to recognize and eradicate cancer cells with high selectivity. As a promising treatment, immunotherapy can not only eliminate the primary tumors, but also be proven to be effective in impeding metastasis and recurrence. However, the clinical application of cancer immunotherapy has faced some limitations including generating weak immune responses due to inadequate delivery of immunostimulants to the immune cells as well as uncontrolled modulation of immune system, which can give rise to autoimmunity and nonspecific inflammation. Growing evidence has suggested that nanotechnology may meet the needs of current cancer immunotherapy. Advanced biomaterials such as nanoparticles afford a unique opportunity to maximize the efficiency of immunotherapy and significantly diminish their toxic side-effects. Here we discuss recent advancements that have been made in nanoparticle-involving breast cancer immunotherapy, varying from direct activation of immune systems through the delivery of tumor antigens and adjuvants to immune cells to altering immunosuppression of tumor environment and combination with other conventional therapies.
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