Wood and Pulping Properties Variation of Acacia crassicarpa A.Cunn. ex Benth. and Sampling Strategies for Accurate Phenotyping Martins, Gustavo Salgado; Yuliarto, Muhammad; Antes, Rudine; Sabki; Prasetyo, Agung; Unda, Faride; Mansfield, Shawn D., 1969-; Hodge, Gary R.; Acosta, Juan Jose
Research Highlights: This study provides a comprehensive set of wood and pulping properties of Acacia crassicarpa A.Cunn. ex Benth. to assess variation and efficient sampling strategies for whole-tree level phenotyping. Background and Objectives: A. crassicarpa is an important tree species in Southeast Asia, with limited knowledge about its wood properties. The objective of this study was to characterize important wood properties and pulping performance of improved germplasm of the species. Furthermore, we investigated within-tree patterns of variation and evaluated the efficiency of phenotyping strategies. Materials and Methods: Second-generation progeny trials were studied, where forty 50-month-old trees were selected for destructive sampling and assessed for wood density, kraft pulp yield, α-cellulose, carbohydrate composition, and lignin content and composition (S/G ratio). We estimated the phenotypic correlations among traits determined within-tree longitudinal variation and its importance for whole-tree level phenotyping. Results: The mean whole-tree disc basic density was 481 kg/m3, and the screened kraft pulp yield was 53.8%. The reliabilities of each sampling position to predict whole-tree properties varied with different traits. For basic density, pulp yield, and glucose content, the ground-level sampling could reliably predict the whole-tree property. With near infrared reflectance spectroscopy predictions as an indirect measurement method for disc basic density, we verified reduced reliability values for breast height sampling but sufficiently correlated to allow accurate ranking and efficient selection of genotypes in a breeding program context. Conclusions: We demonstrated the quality of A. crassicarpa as a wood source for the pulping industry. The wood and pulping traits have high levels of phenotypic variation, and standing tree sampling strategies can be performed for both ranking and high-accuracy phenotyping purposes.
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