Real-Time Monitoring of Volatile Compounds Losses in the Oven during Baking and Toasting of Gluten-Free Bread Doughs: A PTR-MS Evidence Pico, Joana; Khomenko, Iuliia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Navarini, Luciano; Biasioli, Franco
Losses of volatile compounds during baking are expected due to their evaporation at the high temperatures of the oven, which can lead to a decrease in the aroma intensity of the final product, which is crucial for gluten-free breads that are known for their weak aroma. Volatiles from fermentation and lipids oxidation are transferred from crumb to crust, and they flow out to the air together with Maillard and caramelisation compounds from the crust. In this study, the release to the oven of volatile compounds from five gluten-free breads (quinoa, teff and rice flours, and corn and wheat starches) and wheat bread during baking and toasting was measured in real-time using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Baking showed different volatile release patterns that are described by bell-shaped curves, plateaus and exponential growths. Flour-based breads had the higher overall volatile release during baking, but also high ratios in the final bread, while starch-based breads showed high pyrazine releases due to moisture losses. Meanwhile, toasting promoted the release of volatile compounds from the bread matrix, but also the additional generation of volatiles from Maillard reaction and caramelisation. Interestingly, gluten-free breads presented higher losses of volatiles during baking than wheat bread, which could partially explain their weaker aroma.
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