Specific manifestations of knee osteoarthritis predict depression and anxiety years in the future: Vancouver Longitudinal Study of Early Knee Osteoarthritis Sayre, Eric C.; Esdaile, John M.; Kopeć, Jacek A.; Singer, Joel; Wong, Hubert; Thorne, Anona; Guermazi, Ali; Nicolaou, Savvas; Cibere, Jolanda
Background: To evaluate whether knee osteoarthritis (OA) manifestations predict depression and anxiety using cross-sectional and longitudinal prediction models. Methods: A population-based cohort (n = 122) with knee pain, aged 40–79, was evaluated at baseline, 3 and 7 years. Baseline predictors were: age decade; sex; BMI ≥ 25; physical exam knee effusion; crepitus; malalignment; quadriceps atrophy; flexion; flexion contracture; Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) x-ray grade (0/1/2/3+); WOMAC pain ≥25; WOMAC stiffness ≥25; self-reported knee swelling; and knee OA diagnosis (no/probable/definite). Depression and anxiety, cutoffs 5+ and 7+ respectively, were measured via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We fit logistic models at each cycle using multivariable models selected via lowest Akaike’s information criterion. Results: Baseline depression model: sex (female OR = 0.27; 0.10, 0.76) and KL grade (KL 1 OR = 4.21; 1.31, 13.48). Three-year depression model: KL grade (KL 1 OR = 18.92; 1.73, 206.25). Seven-year depression model: WOMAC stiffness ≥25 (OR = 3.49; 1.02, 11.94) and flexion contracture ≥1 degree (OR = 0.23; 0.07, 0.81). Baseline anxiety model: knee swelling (OR = 4.11; 1.51, 11.13) and age (50–59 vs. 40–49 OR = 0.31 [0.11, 0.85]; 60–69 OR = 0.07 [0.01, 0.42]). Three-year anxiety model: WOMAC stiffness ≥25 (OR = 5.80; 1.23, 27.29) and KL grade (KL 1 OR = 6.25; 1.04, 37.65). Seven-year anxiety model: sex (female OR = 2.71; 0.87, 8.46). Conclusion: Specific knee OA-related manifestations predict depression and anxiety cross-sectionally, 3 years in the future, and for depression, 7 years in the future. This information may prove useful to clinicians in helping to identify patients most at risk of present or future depression and anxiety, thus facilitating preemptive discussions that may help counter that risk.
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