Chinese- and English-speaking adult current smokers’ perspectives on smoking and culturally and linguistically appropriate cessation: a qualitative analysis Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica; Aran, Niloufar; Tregobov, Noah
Background: A lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate smoking cessation intervention programs exist among Chinese-Canadian communities. Smoking cessation programs that are provided in Canadian mainstream culture and language have shown limited effectiveness in altering smoking behaviours of smokers from these communities. Our study aimed to explore and compare smoking patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions of adult current smokers between Chinese- and English-speaking Canadians participating in a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program. Methods and Design: A qualitative study embedded in an effectiveness study using an 8-month quasi-experimental design, was conducted to compare the effects of four one-on-one culturally and linguistically sensitive consultation sessions (intervention group) and three telephone follow-up assessments (control group). All participants were provided take-home educational materials (designed exclusively for this study), and completed study questionnaires at baseline and 6-month post-intervention. An 8-month post-intervention phone assessment was conducted with all participants to assess cessation progress and maintenance. Participants: 70 Chinese- and English-speaking adult (aged 19-80) current smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes per day) residing in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada, were recruited between May 2018 and April 2019. Data analysis: Thematic analysis was conducted on self-reported qualitative information from study questionnaires and verbatim transcripts of in-person consultations and telephone follow-ups. Cultural- and demographic-related themes were considered. Results: Perceptions of smoking patterns, smoking status, triggers, and barriers to smoking cessation were identified. Important elements of smoking cessation program, including facilitator characteristics, duration, procedures, cultural factors, and topics were also identified. Differences in perceptions of smoking were observed between gender and language groups. Stress was a major trigger for smoking in both language groups. An individual’s social network was reported as the largest barrier to successful cessation for Chinese-speaking participants. Conclusions Our study provides knowledge and information to further examine the role of risk perception (realization of the possible harms of smoking) in smoking cessation to facilitate the development of future interventions that could more effectively promote smoking cessation among new immigrants and within ethnocultural communities. We found that our program was generally accepted by smokers in both language groups and the participants reported that they were able to apply the strategies learned in the intervention during their quit smoking plan.
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