Quantification of Triple Single-Leg Hop Test Temporospatial Parameters: A Validated Method Using Body-Worn Sensors for Functional Evaluation after Knee Injury Ahmadian, Niloufar; Nazarahari, Milad; Whittaker, Jackie L.; Rouhani, Hossein
Lower extremity kinematic alterations associated with sport-related knee injuries may contribute to an unsuccessful return to sport or early-onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Also, without access to sophisticated motion-capture systems, temporospatial monitoring of horizontal hop tests during clinical assessments is limited. By applying an alternative measurement system of two inertial measurement units (IMUs) per limb, we obtained and validated flying/landing times and hop distances of triple single-leg hop (TSLH) test against motion-capture cameras, assessed these temporospatial parameters amongst injured and uninjured groups, and investigated their association with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Using kinematic features of IMU recordings, strap-down integration, and velocity correction techniques, temporospatial parameters were validated for 10 able-bodied participants and compared between 22 youth with sport-related knee injuries and 10 uninjured youth. With median (interquartile range) errors less than 10(16) ms for flying/landing times, and less than 4.4(5.6)% and 2.4(3.0)% of reference values for individual hops and total TSLH progression, differences between hopping biomechanics of study groups were highlighted. For injured participants, second flying time and all hop distances demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with KOOS Symptom and Function in Daily Living scores. Detailed temporospatial monitoring of hop tests is feasible using the proposed IMUs system.
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