Conditionally Reprogrammed Cells from Patient-Derived Xenograft to Model Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Development Ci, Xinpei; Hao, Jun; Dong, Xin; Xue, Hui; Wu, Rebecca; Choi, Stephen Yiu Chuen; Haegert, Anne M.; Collins, Colin C.; Liu, Xuefeng; Lin, Dong; Wang, Yuzhuo
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a lethal subtype of prostate cancer. It develops mainly via NE transdifferentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma in response to androgen receptor (AR)-inhibition therapy. The study of NEPC development has been hampered by a lack of clinically relevant models. We previously established a unique and first-in-field patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of adenocarcinoma (LTL331)-to-NEPC (LTL331R) transdifferentiation. In this study, we applied conditional reprogramming (CR) culture to establish a LTL331 PDX-derived cancer cell line named LTL331_CR_Cell. These cells retain the same genomic mutations as the LTL331 parental tumor. They can be continuously propagated in vitro and can be genetically manipulated. Androgen deprivation treatment on LTL331_CR_Cells had no effect on cell proliferation. Transcriptomic analyses comparing the LTL331_CR_Cell to its parental tumor revealed a profound downregulation of the androgen response pathway and an upregulation of stem and basal cell marker genes. The transcriptome of LTL331_CR_Cells partially resembles that of post-castrated LTL331 xenografts in mice. Notably, when grafted under the renal capsules of male NOD/SCID mice, LTL331_CR_Cells spontaneously gave rise to NEPC tumors. This is evidenced by the histological expression of the NE marker CD56 and the loss of adenocarcinoma markers such as PSA. Transcriptomic analyses of the newly developed NEPC tumors further demonstrate marked enrichment of NEPC signature genes and loss of AR signaling genes. This study provides a novel research tool derived from a unique PDX model. It allows for the investigation of mechanisms underlying NEPC development by enabling gene manipulations ex vivo and subsequent functional evaluations in vivo.
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