Clinical evidence based review and systematic scientific review in the identification of malignant transformation of inverted papilloma Long, Cai; Jabarin, Basel; Harvey, Alexandra; Ham, Jennifer; Javer, Amin; Janjua, Arif; Thamboo, Andrew
Background: Inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual type of benign tumor that has high recurrence rates and the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The mechanism of the transformation process from IP to IP-SCC is uncertain and there is no consensus regarding the best practice for IP-SCC detection. The goal of this study is to identify the best clinical methods to detect for IP-SCC. Methods: An evidence-based review was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain all articles up to October 10th, 2019 pertaining to identification of IP malignant transformation. All manuscripts discussing clinical methods or biomarkers were included. Results: Based on clinical research studies, convoluted cerebriform pattern and apparent diffusion coefficient values on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can help differentiate benign IP from SCC and increased SUVmax on PET/CT is associated with higher probability of malignancy although not as specific. No consensus about the best biomarker for IP-SCC has been reached among researchers and continues to be exploratory. Conclusion: Endoscopy with biopsy is the gold standard practice to identify IP-SCC; however, MRI is the preferred imaging modality to recognize malignant transformation in cases where biopsy is difficult. Multiple biomarkers have shown positive results, but no single indicator with clinical significance for monitoring malignant transformation process has been found.
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