Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Central Players in a Recurring Theme of Repair and Regeneration Messing, Melina; Jan-Abu, Sia Cecilia; McNagny, Kelly
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are recently discovered innate counterparts to the well-established T helper cell subsets and are most abundant at barrier surfaces, where they participate in tissue homeostasis and inflammatory responses against invading pathogens. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) share cytokine and transcription factor expression profiles with type-2 helper T cells and are primarily associated with immune responses against allergens and helminth infections. Emerging data, however, suggests that ILC2s are also key regulators in other inflammatory settings; both in a beneficial context, such as the establishment of neonatal immunity, tissue repair, and homeostasis, and in the context of pathological tissue damage and disease, such as fibrosis development. This review focuses on the interactions of ILC2s with stromal cells, eosinophils, macrophages, and T regulatory cells that are common to the different settings in which type-2 immunity has been explored. We further discuss how an understanding of these interactions can reveal new avenues of therapeutic tissue regeneration, where the role of ILC2s is yet to be fully established.
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