A phase 2 study of trametinib for patients with pediatric glioma or plexiform neurofibroma with refractory tumor and activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway: TRAM-01 Perreault, Sébastien; Larouche, Valérie; Tabori, Uri; Hawkin, Cynthia; Lippé, Sarah; Ellezam, Benjamin; Décarie, Jean-Claude; Théoret, Yves; Métras, Marie-Élaine; Sultan, Serge; et al.
Background: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most frequent brain tumors in children. Up to 50% will be refractory to conventional chemotherapy. It is now known that the majority of PLGG have activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. The same pathway is also activated in plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) which are low-grade tumors involving peripheral nerves in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). These lesions are known to be refractory to chemotherapy. Specific MEK inhibitors such as trametinib are now available and have been approved for other cancers harboring mutations in the MAPK/ERK pathway such as melanoma. We have observed significant responses to trametinib in patients with refractory PLGG in our institutions and results from the phase I study are promising. The treatment appears not only efficacious but is also usually well tolerated. We hypothesize that we will observe responses in the majority of refractory PLGG and PN treated with trametinib in this phase 2 study. Methods: The primary objective is to determine the objective response rate of trametinib as a single agent for treatment of progressing/refractory tumors with MAPK/ERK pathway activation. The TRAM-01 study is a phase II multicentric open-label basket trial including four groups. Group 1 includes NF1 patients with progressing/refractory glioma. Group 2 includes NF1 patients with plexiform neurofibroma. Group 3 includes patients with progressing/refractory glioma with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Group 4 includes other patients with progressing/refractory glioma with activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Eligible patients for a given study group will receive daily oral trametinib at full dose for a total of 18 cycles of 28 days. A total of 150 patients will be enrolled in seven Canadian centers. Secondary objectives include the assessment of progression-free survival, overall survival, safety and tolerability of trametinib, serum levels of trametinib and evaluation of quality of life during treatment. Discussion: Trametinib will allow us to target directly and specifically the MAPK/ERK pathway. We expect to observe a significant response in most patients. Following our study, trametinib could be integrated into standard treatment of PLGG and PN. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03363217 December 6, 2017.
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