The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity and its association with physical activity, diet, and stress in Canada: evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study Sakakibara, Brodie M; Obembe, Adebimpe O; Eng, Janice
Background: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) is defined as having a diagnosis of at least two of stroke, heart disease, or diabetes, and is an emerging health concern, but the prevalence of CM at a population level in Canada is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the: 1) prevalence of CM in Canada; and 2) association between CM and lifestyle behaviours (e.g., physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and stress). Methods: Using data from the 2016 Canadian Community Health Survey, we estimated the overall and group prevalence of CM in individuals aged ≥50 years (n = 13,226,748). Multiple logistic regression was used to quantify the association between CM and lifestyle behaviours compared to a group without cardiometabolic conditions. Results: The overall prevalence of CM was 3.5% (467,749 individuals). Twenty-two percent (398,755) of people with diabetes reported having another cardiometabolic condition and thus CM, while the same was true for 32.2% (415,686) of people with heart disease and 48.4% (174,754) of stroke survivors. 71.2% of the sample reported eating fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The odds of individuals with CM reporting zero minutes of physical activity was 2.35 [95% CI = 1.87 to 2.95] and having high stress was 1.89 [95% CI = 1.49 to 2.41] times the odds of the no cardiometabolic condition reference group. The odds of individuals with all three cardiometabolic conditions reporting zero minutes of physical activity was 4.31 [95% CI = 2.21 to 8.38] and having high stress was 3.93 [95% CI = 2.03 to 7.61]. Conclusion: The number of Canadians with CM or at risk of CM is high and these individuals have lifestyle behaviours that are associated with adverse health outcomes. Lifestyle behaviours tend to diminish with increasing onset of cardiometabolic conditions. Lifestyle modification interventions focusing on physical activity and stress management for the prevention and management CM are warranted.
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