Travel-To-School Mode Choice Modelling Employing Artificial Intelligence Techniques: A Comparative Study Assi, Khaled J.; Shafiullah, Md; Nahiduzzaman, Kh Md; Mansoor, Umer
Many techniques including logistic regression and artificial intelligence have been employed to explain school-goers mode choice behavior. This paper aims to compare the effectiveness, robustness, and convergence of three different machine learning tools (MLT), namely the extreme learning machine (ELM), support vector machine (SVM), and multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) to predict school-goers mode choice behavior in Al-Khobar and Dhahran cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It uses the students’ information, including the school grade, the distance between home and school, travel time, family income and size, number of students in the family and education level of parents as input variables to the MLT. However, their outputs were binary, that is, either to choose the passenger car or walking to the school. The study examined a promising performance of the ELM and MLP-NN suggesting their significance as alternatives for school-goers mode choice modeling. The performances of the SVM was satisfactory but not to the same level of significance in comparison with the other two. Moreover, the SVM technique is computationally more expensive over the ELM and MLP-NN. Further, this research develops a majority voting ensemble method based on the outputs of the employed MLT to enhance the overall prediction performance. The presented results confirm the efficacy and superiority of the ensemble method over the others. The study results are likely to guide the transport engineers, planners, and decision-makers by providing them with a reliable way to model and predict the traffic demand for transport infrastructures on the basis of the prevailing mode choice behavior.
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