Pulp and Paper Mill Fly Ash: A Review Cherian, Chinchu; Siddiqua, Sumi
The continual growth of pulp and paper industry has led to the generation of tremendous volumes of fly ash as byproducts of biomass combustion processes. Commonly, a major part of it is landfilled; however, updated environmental regulations have tended to restrict the landfilling of fly ash due to rising disposal costs and the scarcity of suitable land. The pulp and paper industries are therefore urgently seeking energy-efficient mechanisms and management for the beneficial use of fly ash in an ecological and economical manner. This paper offers a comprehensive review of existing knowledge on the major physicochemical and toxicological properties of pulp and paper mill fly ash to assess its suitability for various bound and unbound applications. The current state of various methods used for the valorization of pulp and paper mill fly ash into more sustainable geomaterials is briefly discussed. This paper also presents promising and innovative applications for pulp and paper mill fly ash, with particular reference to agriculture and forestry, the construction and geotechnical industries, and the immobilization of contaminants. It was identified from a literature review that modified pulp and paper mill fly ash can be environmentally and economically advantageous over commercial coal-based fly ash in various sustainable applications.
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