Polyarteritis nodosa isolated to the testis and urinary bladder in the setting of cryptorchidism: a case report and literature review Stewart, Mohan; Marcotte, Greg; Seidman, Michael A.; Dehghan, Natasha
Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a small vessel to medium vessel vasculitis that frequently presents with multi-organ involvement, but can sometimes be limited to single organs such as the testes. Patients often require treatment with glucocorticoids, plus or minus additional immunosuppressive therapy depending on the severity of the disease. We describe a rare case of polyarteritis nodosa involving the right testis and urinary bladder without other systemic features of vasculitis. Case presentation: A previously healthy 54-year-old First Nations Canadian man presented with intermittent gross hematuria. He underwent surgical excision of his right testis for cryptorchidism and a transurethral resection of a bladder mass. Histology showed an active medium vessel vasculitis in both organs. On extensive clinical, laboratory, and radiographic review, he had no systemic features of vasculitis. On 2-year follow-up, he has not required any systemic therapy and has not developed further symptoms. Conclusion: Single organ polyarteritis nodosa can sometimes be managed with surgical excision of the involved organ alone. Although our patient had two organs involved, we extrapolated the results of our literature search to guide his care. This case highlights the potential for surgical excision to cure polyarteritis nodosa despite the involvement of two organs in the absence of symptoms and signs of systemic vasculitis.
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