UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Analysis of Sociodemographic, Psychological, and Genetic Factors Contributing to Depressive symptoms in Pre-, Peri- and Postmenopausal Women Grochans, Elżbieta; Szkup, Małgorzata; Kotwas, Artur; Kopeć, Jacek A.; Karakiewicz, Beata; Jurczak, Anna


Depressive symptoms that are faced by women in the pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal periods are determined by a wide array of sociodemographic, psychological, and biological variables. The aim of our study was to identify factors that contribute to depressive problems at this stage of life. The study included 815 healthy Polish women aged 45–60 years. The survey part was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Neuroticism–Extroversion–Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and a self-developed questionnaire. Genetic analysis was also performed. Depressive symptoms were observed in 25.5% of participants. 70% of the women were postmenopausal. No statistically significant differences in the severity of depressive symptoms were demonstrated with regard to genetic variables (p > 0.05). Reproductive capacity (p < 0.001), employment (p < 0.001), and being married (p < 0.018) were found to reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms. The contribution of personality and anxiety as a trait to depressive symptoms varied. Conclusions: The factors predisposing pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women to depressive symptoms include lower education, lack of a life partner, unemployment, high anxiety, and neurotic personality. No evidence was found for the contribution of genetic factors to depressive symptoms in the examined women.

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