A SEMG-Force Estimation Framework Based on a Fast Orthogonal Search Method Coupled with Factorization Algorithms Chen, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Xun
A novel framework based on the fast orthogonal search (FOS) method coupled with factorization algorithms was proposed and implemented to realize high-accuracy muscle force estimation via surface electromyogram (SEMG). During static isometric elbow flexion, high-density SEMG (HD-SEMG) signals were recorded from upper arm muscles, and the generated elbow force was measured at the wrist. HD-SEMG signals were decomposed into time-invariant activation patterns and time-varying activation curves using three typical factorization algorithms including principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). The activation signal of the target muscle was obtained by summing the activation curves, and the FOS algorithm was used to create basis functions with activation signals and establish the force estimation model. Static isometric elbow flexion experiments at three target levels were performed on seven male subjects, and the force estimation performances were compared among three typical factorization algorithms as well as a conventional method for extracting the average signal envelope of all HD-SEMG channels (AVG-ENVLP method). The overall root mean square difference (RMSD) values between the measured forces and the estimated forces obtained by different methods were 11.79 ± 4.29% for AVG-ENVLP, 9.74 ± 3.77% for PCA, 9.59 ± 3.81% for ICA, and 9.51 ± 4.82% for NMF. The results demonstrated that, compared to the conventional AVG-ENVLP method, factorization algorithms could substantially improve the performance of force estimation. The FOS method coupled with factorization algorithms provides an effective way to estimate the combined force of multiple muscles and has potential value in the fields of sports biomechanics, gait analysis, prosthesis control strategy, and exoskeleton devices for assisted rehabilitation.
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