The Efficacy of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Girls and Women Living with HIV McClymont, Elisabeth; Lee, Marette; Raboud, Janet; Coutlée, François; Walmsley, Sharon; Lipsky, Nancy; Loutfy, Mona; Trottier, Sylvie; Smaill, Fiona; Klein, Marina B.; Harris, Marianne; Cohen, Jeffrey; Yudin, Mark H.; Wobeser, Wendy; Money, Deborah M.
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is safe and efficacious in women without HIV. While good immunogenicity has been observed in women living with HIV (WLWH), efficacy data in this population are needed. Methods: We enrolled 420 females aged ≥9 years (range: 9-65) living with HIV. Participants were to receive 3 doses of qHPV vaccine (0/2/6 months). The main endpoint was vaccine failure (i.e., incident persistent qHPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or higher (CIN2+), or genital warts). We compared these rates to published rates in vaccinated and unvaccinated women without HIV as well as unvaccinated WLWH. Results: Among 279 eligible women, median follow-up was 2 years. In the intention-to treat population, the incidence rate (IR) of persistent qHPV (HPV6/11/16/18) was 2.3 per 100 person-years (/100PY) (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-4.1) and IR of genital warts was 2.3/100PY (95% CI=1.2-4.1). In the per-protocol efficacy population, IR of persistent qHPV was 1.0/100PY (95% CI=0.3-2.6) and of genital warts was 1.0/100PY (95% CI=0.3-2.5). No cases of CIN2+ occurred. Reported rates of qHPV-related infection and disease within the vaccinated women without HIV, unvaccinated women without HIV, and the vaccinated WLWH: 0.1 (95% CI=0.02-0.03), 1.5 (95% CI=1.1- 2.0), and 1.2 (95% CI=0.2-3.4) /100PY, respectively. The rate of persistent qHPV among vaccinated WLWH was lower than among unvaccinated WLWH (2.3 vs. 6.0/100PY). Conclusions: Vaccinated WLWH may be 53 at higher risk for vaccine failure than vaccinated women without HIV. However, overall rates of vaccine failure were low and rates of persistent qHPV were lower than in unvaccinated WLWH.
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