Yeast Phenomics: An Experimental Approach for Modeling Gene Interaction Networks that Buffer Disease Hartman, John L.; Stisher, Chandler; Outlaw, Darryl A.; Guo, Jingyu; Shah, Najaf A.; Tian, Dehua; Santos, Sean M.; Rodgers, John W.; White, Richard A.
The genome project increased appreciation of genetic complexity underlying disease phenotypes: many genes contribute each phenotype and each gene contributes multiple phenotypes. The aspiration of predicting common disease in individuals has evolved from seeking primary loci to marginal risk assignments based on many genes. Genetic interaction, defined as contributions to a phenotype that are dependent upon particular digenic allele combinations, could improve prediction of phenotype from complex genotype, but it is difficult to study in human populations. High throughput, systematic analysis of S. cerevisiae gene knockouts or knockdowns in the context of disease-relevant phenotypic perturbations provides a tractable experimental approach to derive gene interaction networks, in order to deduce by cross-species gene homology how phenotype is buffered against disease-risk genotypes. Yeast gene interaction network analysis to date has revealed biology more complex than previously imagined. This has motivated the development of more powerful yeast cell array phenotyping methods to globally model the role of gene interaction networks in modulating phenotypes (which we call yeast phenomic analysis). The article illustrates yeast phenomic technology, which is applied here to quantify gene X media interaction at higher resolution and supports use of a human-like media for future applications of yeast phenomics for modeling human disease.
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