Swift metabolite changes and leaf shedding are milestones in the acclimation process of grapevine under prolonged water stress Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Wong, Darren C J; Alberti, Giorgio; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone D; Herrera, Jose C; Fait, Aaron
Background: Grape leaves provide the biochemical substrates for berry development. Thus, understanding the regulation of grapevine leaf metabolism can aid in discerning processes fundamental to fruit development and berry quality. Here, the temporal alterations in leaf metabolism in Merlot grapevine grown under sufficient irrigation and water deficit were monitored from veraison until harvest. Results: The vines mediated water stress gradually and involving multiple strategies: osmotic adjustment, transcript-metabolite alteration and leaf shedding. Initially stomatal conductance and leaf water potential showed a steep decrease together with the induction of stress related metabolism, e.g. up-regulation of proline and GABA metabolism and stress related sugars, and the down-regulation of developmental processes. Later, progressive soil drying was associated with an incremental contribution of Ca2+ and sucrose to the osmotic adjustment concomitant with the initiation of leaf shedding. Last, towards harvest under progressive stress conditions following leaf shedding, incremental changes in leaf water potential were measured, while the magnitude of perturbation in leaf metabolism lessened. Conclusions: The data present evidence that over time grapevine acclimation to water stress diversifies in temporal responses encompassing the alteration of central metabolism and gene expression, osmotic adjustments and reduction in leaf area. Together these processes mitigate leaf water stress and aid in maintaining the berry-ripening program.
Item Citations and Data
Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)