The SSRMI scale : development and validation of a self-stigma measure for first-degree relatives of people with mental illness Morris, E.; Hippman, C.; Murray, G.; Michalak, E.E.; Boyd, J.E.; Livingston, J.; Inglis, A.; Carrion, P.; Austin, J.
Background: Serious mental illnesses (SMIs) are profoundly stigmatized, such that even relatives of people with SMI are impacted. Aims: To develop/validate a scale to comprehensively measure self-stigma among first-degree relatives of individuals with SMI. Methods: We conducted group interviews focusing on self-stigma with first-degree relatives (n=20) of people with SMI, from which 74 representative quotations were reframed as Likert-type items. Cognitive interviews with relatives (n=11) identified 30 items for the Self-Stigma in Relatives of people with Mental Illness (SSRMI) scale. Relatives (n=195) completed the scale twice, a month apart, together with four external correlate scales. Results: The 30-item SSRMI was reliable, with scores stable over time. Its single factor structure allowed generation of a 10-item version. Construct validity of 30- and 10-item versions was supported by expected relationships with external correlates. Conclusions: Both versions of the SSRMI scale are valid and reliable instruments appropriate for use in clinical/research contexts.
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