A systematic review of the effects of CYP2D6 phenotypes on risperidone treatment in children and adolescents Dodsworth, Thomas; Kim, David D; Procyshyn, Ric M; Ross, Colin J; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M
The second generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is widely used in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry to treat conditions associated with disruptive behavior, aggression and irritability, such as autism spectrum disorders. While risperidone can provide symptomatic relief for many patients, there is considerable individual variability in the therapeutic response and side-effect profile of the medication. One well established biological factor that contributes to these individual differences is genetic variation in the cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6. The 2D6 enzyme metabolizes risperidone and therefore affects drug levels and dosing. In the present review, we summarize the current literature on 2D6 variants and their effects on risperidone responses, specifically in children and adolescents. Relevant articles were identified through systematic review, and after irrelevant articles were discarded, ten studies were included in the review. Most prospective studies were well controlled, but often did not have a large enough sample size to make robust statements about rarer variants, including those categorized as ultra-rapid and poor metabolizers. Individual studies demonstrated a role for different genetic variants in risperidone drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, hyperprolactinemia, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and drug–drug interactions. Where studies overlapped in measurements, there was typically a consensus between results. These findings indicate that the value of 2D6 genotyping in the youth population treated with risperidone requires further study, in particular with the less common variants.
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