Patient and system factors of mortality after hip fracture: a scoping review Sheehan, K. J; Sobolev, B.; Chudyk, A.; Stephens, T.; Guy, P.
Background: Several patient and health system factors were associated with the risk of death among patients with hip fracture. However, without knowledge of underlying mechanisms interventions to improve survival post hip fracture can only be designed on the basis of the found statistical associations. Methods: We used the framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley and Levac et al. for synthesis of factors and mechanisms of mortality post low energy hip fracture in adults over the age of 50 years, published in English, between September 1, 2009 and October 1, 2014 and indexed in MEDLINE. Proposed mechanisms for reported associations were extracted from the discussion sections. Results: We synthesized the evidence from 56 articles that reported on 35 patient and 9 system factors of mortality post hip fracture. For 21 factors we found proposed biological mechanisms for their association with mortality which included complications, comorbidity, cardiorespiratory function, immune function, bone remodeling and glycemic control. Conclusions: The majority of patient and system factors of mortality post hip fracture were reported by only one or two articles and with no proposed mechanisms for their effects on mortality. Where reported, underlying mechanisms are often based on a single article and should be confirmed with further study. Therefore, one cannot be certain whether intervening on such factors may produce expected results.
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