UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L


Background: This study examined the association of breakfast consumption, and the type of breakfast consumed, with body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and prevalence rates and odds ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity among Canadian adults. These associations were examined by age group and sex. Methods We used data from non-pregnant, non-lactating participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 12,377) in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, a population-based, nationally-representative, cross-sectional study. Height and weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. Breakfast consumption was self-reported during a standardized 24-h recall; individuals were classified as breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts that included ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) or as other breakfast consumers. Mean BMI and prevalence and OR of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) were compared among breakfast groups, with adjustment for sociodemographic variables (including age, sex, race, marital status, food security, language spoken at home, physical activity category, smoking, education level and supplement use). Results For the entire sample, mean BMI was significantly lower among RTEC-breakfast consumers than other breakfast consumers (mean ± SE 26.5 ± 0.2 vs. 27.1 ± 0.1 kg/m2), but neither group differed significantly from breakfast non-consumers (27.1 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Similar results were seen in women only, but BMI of men did not differ by breakfast category. Overweight/obesity prevalence and OR did not differ among breakfast groups for the entire sample or for all men and women separately. When examined by sex and age group, differences were inconsistent, but tended to be more apparent in women than men. Conclusion Among Canadian adults, breakfast consumption was not consistently associated with differences in BMI or overweight/obesity prevalence.

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