Nutrient and biotic properties of mormoder and leptomoder humus forms in the coastal western hemlock zone Klinka, Karel; Fons, Jaume; Chourmouzis, Christine
In British Columbia, humus form identification is widely use to infer the level of plant-available soil nutrients. This identification is based on field-observable (morphological) features. We recognize three major humu forms: Mors, Moders, and Mulls - which are differentiated according to the type of F horizon, and the presence/absence of organic matter-enriched Ah horizons. Mors represent humus forms where decomposition is dominated by fungi, with slow decomposition rates and accumulations of organic matter on the soil surface. Mors are characterized by the presence of a Fm (m - mycogenous) horizon. In contrast, Mulls represent humus forms with high rates of decomposition and faunal activity resulting in organic matter being intimately incorporated into the upper mineral soil layer instead of accumulating on its surface. Intermediate on the humus form gradient from Mors to Mull are the Moders. Moders are similar to Mors in that they have accumulations of organic matter on the surface of the mineral soil but decomposition is not fungus dominated, so they lack the diagnostic Fm horizon. The central concept of the Moder is represented by the Leptomoder, which is characterized by a Fz (z - zoogenous) horizon with an active population of soil meso- and microfauna, fungal mycelia are not present or present in small amounts. When both fungal mycelia and faunal droppings can be found, but neither clearly predominate over the other, an Fa (a - amphimorphic) horizon results. Fa horizons are characteristic of Mormoders, an integrade between Mors and Moders. Considering the prevalence of Mormoders and Leptomoders in B.C. and the difficulties in identifying Fa horizons, the aim of this study was to determine whether the morphological features used to differentiate these two Moder humus forms reflects differences in their physical, chemical and biotic properties.
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