World Sanskrit Conference (WSC) (17th : 2018)

What Is the Purpose of Restating dā in Aṣṭādhyāyī 5.3.19 : tado dā ca? Kawamura, Yūto


A 5.3.15: sarvaikānyakiṁyattadaḥ kāle dā introduces the affix dā after tad terminating in seventh-triplet endings on condition that reference is made to a time. By this rule obtains the derivate tadā corresponding to the string tasmin kāle. Despite this, A 5.3.19: tado dā ca also provides that tad in seventh-triplet endings takes dā under the same condition, thus resulting in the same derivate. Whereas Kātyāyana and Patañjali consider it meaningless to restate dā in A 5.3.19, four solutions to this problem are offered by some other grammarians. The aim of this paper is to consider their validity and Pāṇini’s intention in restating dā in the rule. It shall be shown first that three of the four solutions are unacceptable. What one must pay careful attention to is the remaining explanation mentioned by Kaiyaṭa: There is a difference between the two tadās derived by A 5.3.15 and 5.3.19; the former serves to derive tadā́ (tad + Ṅ i + dā́) with high pitch on its last vowel and the latter to derive tádā (tad + Ṅ i + ádā) with high pitch on its first vowel. That is, A 5.3.19 is to be read as tado 'dā ca. Although tadā́ is a regular formation, tádā also could be secondarily formed due to various linguistic factors. It is therefore possible that tádā did exist in the language Pāṇini describes and he accounted for it by A 5.3.19. In this context, it is compelling that this form is actually found in Ṛgveda Khila 1.8.1.

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