Energy loss modeling of water main breaks : a hybrid system dynamics-agent based modeling approach Zamenian, Hamed; Abraham, Dulcy M.; Faust, Kasey
According to the United States Government Accountability Office Energy-Water Nexus Report, the water pipeline infrastructure system is nearing the end of its service life. Up to 50 percent of water is lost, as evidenced by the 240,000 water main breaks that occur each year, estimated by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Water loss in the distribution system leads to additional expenditures for extracting water from natural resources, treatment, pumping, and transporting water into the distribution pipeline network system. Minimizing water losses has the potential to curb the increase in operating costs throughout the distribution system. This paper describes a conceptual System of Systems (SoS) framework for estimating the energy footprint resulting from water main breaks that considers the full cycle of providing drinking water to customers. The paper focuses on the interactions between the water loss in the distribution system and the energy-intensive operational components of the water infrastructure. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge and practice by developing a methodology to quantify the impact of water main breaks on energy consumption and by creating a tool that assists the water utilities as decision-makers in their assessment of the effects of water main breaks on the satisfaction of customers and the revenue loss of water utilities.
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