{"@context":{"@language":"en","Affiliation":"http:\/\/vivoweb.org\/ontology\/core#departmentOrSchool","AggregatedSourceRepository":"http:\/\/www.europeana.eu\/schemas\/edm\/dataProvider","Campus":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#degreeCampus","Creator":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/creator","DateAvailable":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/issued","DateIssued":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/issued","Degree":"http:\/\/vivoweb.org\/ontology\/core#relatedDegree","DegreeGrantor":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#degreeGrantor","Description":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/description","DigitalResourceOriginalRecord":"http:\/\/www.europeana.eu\/schemas\/edm\/aggregatedCHO","FullText":"http:\/\/www.w3.org\/2009\/08\/skos-reference\/skos.html#note","Genre":"http:\/\/www.europeana.eu\/schemas\/edm\/hasType","GraduationDate":"http:\/\/vivoweb.org\/ontology\/core#dateIssued","IsShownAt":"http:\/\/www.europeana.eu\/schemas\/edm\/isShownAt","Language":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/language","Program":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#degreeDiscipline","Provider":"http:\/\/www.europeana.eu\/schemas\/edm\/provider","Publisher":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/publisher","Rights":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/rights","RightsURI":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#rightsURI","ScholarlyLevel":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#scholarLevel","Title":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/title","Type":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/type","URI":"https:\/\/open.library.ubc.ca\/terms#identifierURI","SortDate":"http:\/\/purl.org\/dc\/terms\/date"},"Affiliation":[{"@value":"Graduate Studies, College of (Okanagan)","@language":"en"}],"AggregatedSourceRepository":[{"@value":"DSpace","@language":"en"}],"Campus":[{"@value":"UBCO","@language":"en"}],"Creator":[{"@value":"Grant, Juawana","@language":"en"}],"DateAvailable":[{"@value":"2016-08-18T02:02:02","@language":"en"}],"DateIssued":[{"@value":"2016","@language":"en"}],"Degree":[{"@value":"Master of Arts - MA","@language":"en"}],"DegreeGrantor":[{"@value":"University of British Columbia","@language":"en"}],"Description":[{"@value":"Contemporary feminist media, such as Bust Magazine, participate in spreading the messages of progressive social movements at the street level by packaging easily digestible articles with glossy photos and celebrity covers. The inclusion of vegan and animal activist messages represents a long history of feminist media including animal activist topics throughout feminist history. Further, alternative media have the potential to foster counterpublics and play a role in the development of social movements. This textual analysis examines the way discourses of veganism and animal activism are represented in Bust\u2019s online media content and how Bust links veganism and animal activism to feminism. This analysis found that Bust represents animal activism in three ways: (1) By linking veganism to ethical consumerism; (2) By linking veganism and animal activism to celebrity and style; (3) By commenting on current events related to veganism or animal activism. Applying ecofeminist and critical animal studies theories, this research explores the potential and limitations of Bust\u2019s subcultural appeal and commodity activism approach to animal advocacy. Bust\u2019s subcultural \u201chipster\u201d appeal and feminist politics make it an interesting site to explore the potential of feminist media to spread intersectional social justice messages that include nonhuman animals to an audience already primed for political protest by way of their feminist identities. This analysis finds, however, that Bust\u2019s exclusion of diverse vegan perspective and ambivalent stance on animal activism compromises their feminist politics.","@language":"en"}],"DigitalResourceOriginalRecord":[{"@value":"https:\/\/circle.library.ubc.ca\/rest\/handle\/2429\/58837?expand=metadata","@language":"en"}],"FullText":[{"@value":" \u00a0\u2018BE \u00a0A \u00a0VEGAN \u00a0OR \u00a0JUST \u00a0DRESS \u00a0LIKE \u00a0ONE\u2019: \u00a0ANIMAL \u00a0LIBERATION \u00a0IN \u00a0POPULAR \u00a0FEMINIST \u00a0MEDIA \u00a0\t \u00a0by\t \u00a0\t \u00a0Juawana\t \u00a0Grant\t \u00a0\t \u00a0B.A.,\t \u00a0The\t \u00a0University\t \u00a0of\t \u00a0Nevada\t \u00a0Las\t \u00a0Vegas,\t \u00a02008\t \u00a0\t \u00a0A\t \u00a0THESIS\t \u00a0SUBMITTED\t \u00a0IN\t \u00a0PARTIAL\t \u00a0FULFILLMENT\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0REQUIREMENTS\t \u00a0FOR\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0DEGREE\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0\t \u00a0MASTER\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0ARTS\t \u00a0\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0COLLEGE\t 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\u00a0(please\t \u00a0print\t \u00a0name\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0faculty\/school\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0the\t \u00a0line\t \u00a0above)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0Dr.\t \u00a0Jim\t \u00a0Robinson,\t \u00a0Faculty\t \u00a0of\t \u00a0Community,\t \u00a0Culture,\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0Global\t \u00a0Studies,\t \u00a0UBC\t \u00a0Okanagan\t \u00a0University\t \u00a0Examiner,\t \u00a0Professor\t \u00a0(please\t \u00a0print\t \u00a0name\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0faculty\/school\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0the\t \u00a0line\t \u00a0above)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0External\t \u00a0Examiner,\t \u00a0Professor\t \u00a0(please\t \u00a0print\t \u00a0name\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0university\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0the\t \u00a0line\t \u00a0above)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a008\/6\/2016\t \u00a0\t \u00a0(Date\t \u00a0Submitted\t \u00a0to\t \u00a0Grad\t \u00a0Studies)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0Additional\t \u00a0Committee\t \u00a0Members\t \u00a0include:\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0(please\t \u00a0print\t \u00a0name\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0faculty\/school\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0the\t \u00a0line\t \u00a0above)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0(please\t \u00a0print\t \u00a0name\t \u00a0and\t \u00a0faculty\/school\t \u00a0in\t \u00a0the\t \u00a0line\t \u00a0above)\t \u00a0\t \u00a0 \t \u00a0 \t \u00a0 iii\t \u00a0Abstract \u00a0\t \u00a0Contemporary \u00a0feminist \u00a0media, \u00a0such \u00a0as \u00a0Bust \u00a0Magazine, \u00a0participate \u00a0in \u00a0spreading \u00a0the \u00a0messages \u00a0of \u00a0progressive \u00a0social \u00a0movements \u00a0at \u00a0the \u00a0street \u00a0level \u00a0by \u00a0packaging \u00a0easily \u00a0digestible \u00a0articles \u00a0with \u00a0glossy \u00a0photos \u00a0and \u00a0celebrity \u00a0covers. \u00a0The \u00a0inclusion \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activist \u00a0messages \u00a0represents \u00a0a \u00a0long \u00a0history \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0including \u00a0animal \u00a0activist \u00a0topics \u00a0throughout \u00a0feminist \u00a0history. \u00a0Further, \u00a0alternative \u00a0media \u00a0have \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0to \u00a0foster \u00a0counterpublics \u00a0and \u00a0play \u00a0a \u00a0role \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0development \u00a0of \u00a0social \u00a0movements. \u00a0 \u00a0This \u00a0textual \u00a0analysis \u00a0examines \u00a0the \u00a0way \u00a0discourses \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0are \u00a0represented \u00a0in \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0online \u00a0media \u00a0content \u00a0and \u00a0how \u00a0Bust \u00a0links \u00a0veganism \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0to \u00a0feminism. \u00a0This \u00a0analysis \u00a0found \u00a0that \u00a0Bust \u00a0represents \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0in \u00a0three \u00a0ways: \u00a0(1) \u00a0By \u00a0linking \u00a0veganism \u00a0to \u00a0ethical \u00a0consumerism;\u037e \u00a0(2) \u00a0By \u00a0linking \u00a0veganism \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0to \u00a0celebrity \u00a0and \u00a0style;\u037e \u00a0(3) \u00a0By \u00a0commenting \u00a0on \u00a0current \u00a0events \u00a0related \u00a0to \u00a0veganism \u00a0or \u00a0animal \u00a0activism. \u00a0Applying \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0and \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0theories, \u00a0this \u00a0research \u00a0explores \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0and \u00a0limitations \u00a0of \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0subcultural \u00a0appeal \u00a0and \u00a0commodity \u00a0activism \u00a0approach \u00a0to \u00a0animal \u00a0advocacy. \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0subcultural \u00a0\u201chipster\u201d \u00a0appeal \u00a0and \u00a0feminist \u00a0politics \u00a0make \u00a0it \u00a0an \u00a0interesting \u00a0site \u00a0to \u00a0explore \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0to \u00a0spread \u00a0intersectional \u00a0social \u00a0justice \u00a0messages \u00a0that \u00a0include \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0animals \u00a0to \u00a0an \u00a0audience \u00a0already \u00a0primed \u00a0for \u00a0political \u00a0protest \u00a0by \u00a0way \u00a0of \u00a0their \u00a0feminist \u00a0identities. \u00a0This \u00a0analysis \u00a0finds, \u00a0however, \u00a0that \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0exclusion \u00a0of \u00a0diverse \u00a0vegan \u00a0perspective \u00a0and \u00a0ambivalent \u00a0stance \u00a0on \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0compromises \u00a0their \u00a0feminist \u00a0politics. \u00a0 \u00a0\t \u00a0 \t \u00a0 \t \u00a0 iv\t \u00a0Acknowledgements \u00a0\t \u00a0I \u00a0offer \u00a0my \u00a0immense \u00a0appreciation \u00a0to \u00a0the \u00a0faculty, \u00a0staff \u00a0(especially \u00a0Shauna \u00a0Oddleifson), \u00a0and \u00a0students \u00a0in \u00a0Creative \u00a0and \u00a0Critical \u00a0Studies \u00a0who \u00a0generously \u00a0supported \u00a0me \u00a0and \u00a0my \u00a0work \u00a0in \u00a0myriad \u00a0ways \u00a0throughout \u00a0the \u00a0course \u00a0of \u00a0this \u00a0research. \u00a0I \u00a0owe \u00a0particular \u00a0thanks \u00a0to \u00a0my \u00a0supervisor \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Jodey \u00a0Castricano \u00a0for \u00a0welcoming \u00a0me \u00a0into \u00a0the \u00a0program, \u00a0inspiring \u00a0bravery \u00a0in \u00a0my \u00a0writing, \u00a0and \u00a0always \u00a0reminding \u00a0me \u00a0that \u00a0I \u00a0was \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0right \u00a0place \u00a0when \u00a0I \u00a0let \u00a0doubt \u00a0creep \u00a0in. \u00a0I \u00a0also \u00a0extend \u00a0enormous \u00a0thank \u00a0yous \u00a0to \u00a0my \u00a0committee \u00a0members: \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Constance \u00a0Crompton \u00a0and \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Ilya \u00a0Parkins. \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Crompton\u2019s \u00a0generosity \u00a0and \u00a0enthusiasm \u00a0for \u00a0my \u00a0project \u00a0directly \u00a0resulted \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0skills \u00a0and \u00a0texts \u00a0I \u00a0needed \u00a0to \u00a0see \u00a0it \u00a0through. \u00a0The \u00a0knowledge \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Parkins \u00a0has \u00a0shared \u00a0with \u00a0me \u00a0has \u00a0led \u00a0me \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0new \u00a0direction \u00a0in \u00a0research-\u00ad-\u00adwithout \u00a0which \u00a0I \u00a0may \u00a0have \u00a0just \u00a0have \u00a0stalled \u00a0out \u00a0at \u00a0this \u00a0point. \u00a0I \u00a0would \u00a0also \u00a0like \u00a0extend \u00a0my \u00a0gratitude \u00a0to \u00a0Dr. \u00a0Ruthann \u00a0Lee \u00a0whose \u00a0conversation \u00a0and \u00a0support \u00a0during \u00a0the \u00a0past \u00a0two \u00a0years \u00a0has \u00a0been \u00a0invaluable. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0A \u00a0loud \u00a0and \u00a0obnoxious \u00a0thanks \u00a0to \u00a0the \u00a0many \u00a0friends \u00a0I \u00a0made \u00a0in \u00a0Kelowna. \u00a0Without \u00a0the \u00a0warmth \u00a0I \u00a0received \u00a0from \u00a0them, \u00a0I \u00a0would \u00a0surely \u00a0have \u00a0frozen \u00a0to \u00a0death \u00a0by \u00a0now. \u00a0Thanks \u00a0also \u00a0to \u00a0all \u00a0those \u00a0who \u00a0loved \u00a0and \u00a0encouraged \u00a0me \u00a0before \u00a0I \u00a0arrived \u00a0here \u00a0for \u00a0without \u00a0them \u00a0I \u00a0would \u00a0have \u00a0never \u00a0thought \u00a0to \u00a0try \u00a0at \u00a0all. \u00a0A \u00a0final \u00a0thanks \u00a0to \u00a0my \u00a0four-\u00adlegged \u00a0sister \u00a0and \u00a0roommate, \u00a0Sitka. \u00a0She\u2019s \u00a0heard \u00a0it \u00a0all. \u00a0 \u00a0\t \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 v\t \u00a0Table \u00a0of \u00a0Contents \u00a0ABSTRACT\t \u00a0.....................................................................................................................................\t \u00a0III\t \u00a0ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS\t \u00a0.................................................................................................................\t \u00a0IV\t \u00a0CHAPTER\t \u00a01\t \u00a0\t \u00a0INTRODUCTION\t \u00a0...........................................................................................................\t \u00a01\t \u00a0OUTLINE\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0CHAPTERS\t \u00a0...........................................................................................................................\t \u00a05\t \u00a0CHAPTER\t \u00a02\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0ECOFEMINISM,\t \u00a0CRITICAL\t \u00a0ANIMAL\t \u00a0AND\t \u00a0VEGAN\t \u00a0STUDIES\t \u00a0.............................................\t \u00a07\t \u00a0CHAPTER\t \u00a03\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0ECOFEMINIST\t \u00a0CONNECTIONS\t \u00a0IN\t \u00a0FEMINIST\t \u00a0MEDIA:\t \u00a0A\t \u00a0BRIEF\t \u00a0SURVEY\t \u00a0.........................\t \u00a014\t \u00a0BRITISH\t \u00a0ANTIVIVISECTIONISTS\t \u00a0AND\t \u00a0VEGETARIAN\t \u00a0SUFFRAGETTES\t \u00a0..................................................................\t \u00a015\t \u00a0A\t \u00a0DIFFERENT\t \u00a0TACTIC:\t \u00a0AMERICAN\t \u00a0ANTIVIVISECTION\t \u00a0AND\t \u00a0FEMINISM\t \u00a0.............................................................\t \u00a018\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0SECOND\t \u00a0WAVE:\t \u00a0REPRESENTATIONS\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0FEMINIST\t \u00a0VEGETARIAN\t \u00a0CONNECTION\t \u00a0....................................\t \u00a021\t \u00a0THIRD\t \u00a0WAVE:\t \u00a0CONNECTIONS\t \u00a0THROUGH\t \u00a0CONSUMPTION\t \u00a0............................................................................\t \u00a025\t \u00a0CHAPTER\t \u00a04\t \u00a0\t \u00a0VEGANISM\t \u00a0IN\t \u00a0THE\t \u00a0WEB\t \u00a0PAGES\t \u00a0OF\t \u00a0BUST\t \u00a0....................................................................\t \u00a031\t \u00a0BUST\u2019S\t \u00a0FEMINISM\t \u00a0................................................................................................................................\t \u00a035\t \u00a0HIPSTER\t \u00a0FEMINISM\t \u00a0..............................................................................................................................\t \u00a038\t \u00a0METHOD\t \u00a0...........................................................................................................................................\t \u00a042\t \u00a0\u2018GET\t \u00a0HIP\t \u00a0TO\t \u00a0ANIMALS\t \u00a0AND\t \u00a0GET\t \u00a0HIP\t \u00a0DOING\t \u00a0IT\u2019:\t \u00a0VEGANISM\t \u00a0AS\t \u00a0SUBCULTURAL\t \u00a0IDENTITY\t \u00a0PRAXIS\t \u00a0...........................\t \u00a045\t \u00a0Vegan\t \u00a0as\t \u00a0Ethical\t \u00a0.........................................................................................................................\t \u00a046\t \u00a0Vegan\t \u00a0as\t \u00a0Hip\t \u00a0...............................................................................................................................\t \u00a051\t \u00a0Vegan\t \u00a0as\t \u00a0Feminist\t \u00a0.......................................................................................................................\t \u00a053\t \u00a0CHAPTER\t \u00a05\t \u00a0\t 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\u00a0feminist \u00a0agenda. \u00a0Eventually, \u00a0Adams \u00a0and \u00a0other \u00a0vegan \u00a0ecofeminists \u00a0moved \u00a0from \u00a0making \u00a0connections \u00a0between \u00a0objects \u00a0of \u00a0oppression \u00a0to \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a08 \u00a0Greta \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0\u201cVegetarian \u00a0Ecofeminism: \u00a0A \u00a0Review \u00a0Essay,\u201d \u00a0Frontiers: \u00a0A \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Women \u00a0Studies \u00a023.3 \u00a0(2002): \u00a0118. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a09 \u00a0Language \u00a0has \u00a0evolved \u00a0overtime \u00a0from \u00a0\u201cvegetarian\u201d \u00a0to \u00a0\u201cvegan,\u201d \u00a0but \u00a0as \u00a0explained \u00a0in \u00a0Adams\u2019 \u00a020th \u00a0Anniversary \u00a0Edition \u00a0of \u00a0The \u00a0Sexual \u00a0Politics \u00a0of \u00a0Meat, \u00a0\u201cvegetarian\u201d \u00a0in \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0texts \u00a0written \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0nineties \u00a0is \u00a0meant \u00a0to \u00a0signify \u00a0the \u00a0rejection \u00a0of \u00a0consuming \u00a0any \u00a0animal \u00a0products, \u00a0including \u00a0eggs \u00a0and \u00a0dairy. \u00a0Further, \u00a0this \u00a0thesis \u00a0does \u00a0not \u00a0consider \u00a0vegetarian \u00a0diets \u00a0as \u00a0ethical \u00a0choices \u00a0in \u00a0line \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0vegan \u00a0feminist \u00a0ideas. \u00a0Vegetarian \u00a0diets \u00a0are \u00a0still \u00a0deeply \u00a0complicit \u00a0in \u00a0exploitation;\u037e \u00a0eggs \u00a0and \u00a0dairy \u00a0require \u00a0the \u00a0gendered \u00a0exploitation \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0reproductive \u00a0capabilities \u00a0of \u00a0female \u00a0animals. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a010 \u00a0Carol \u00a0J. \u00a0Adams, \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0feminist-\u00advegan \u00a0now?\u201d \u00a0Feminism \u00a0& \u00a0Psychology \u00a020.3 \u00a0(2010): \u00a0304. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 8\t \u00a0structures \u00a0that \u00a0oppress.11 \u00a0Ecofeminist \u00a0thought \u00a0offers \u00a0critiques \u00a0of \u00a0Cartesian \u00a0dualism, \u00a0which \u00a0is \u00a0largely \u00a0credited \u00a0for \u00a0the \u00a0ingrained \u00a0dichotomies \u00a0between \u00a0nature\/culture, \u00a0mind\/body, \u00a0and \u00a0human\/nonhuman \u00a0in \u00a0Western \u00a0thought. \u00a0With \u00a0their \u00a0feminist \u00a0critiques \u00a0of \u00a0Cartesian \u00a0dualism, \u00a0ecofeminists \u00a0were \u00a0calling \u00a0for \u00a0feminism \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0whole \u00a0to \u00a0consider \u00a0the \u00a0plight \u00a0of \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0animals 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\u00a0renewal \u00a0in \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0scholarship \u00a0has \u00a0been \u00a0the \u00a0rise \u00a0of \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies. \u00a0Critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0strives \u00a0to \u00a0build \u00a0a \u00a0radical \u00a0and \u00a0intersectional \u00a0movement \u00a0towards \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0from \u00a0theory \u00a0to \u00a0direct \u00a0action.14 \u00a0Many \u00a0scholars \u00a0who \u00a0theorize \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0area \u00a0of \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0explore \u00a0the \u00a0animal \u00a0connection \u00a0with \u00a0other \u00a0axes \u00a0of \u00a0oppression \u00a0calling \u00a0for \u00a0deeper \u00a0intersectional \u00a0thought \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t 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\u00a0respond \u00a0to \u00a0these \u00a0criticisms \u00a0as \u00a0reflected \u00a0in \u00a0contemporary \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0research.21 \u00a0Postcolonial \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0scholars \u00a0such \u00a0as \u00a0A. \u00a0Breeze \u00a0Harper, \u00a0Maneesha \u00a0Deckha \u00a0and \u00a0activists \u00a0Aph \u00a0and \u00a0Syl \u00a0Ko \u00a0theorize \u00a0the \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0in \u00a0ways \u00a0that \u00a0deconstruct \u00a0and \u00a0decolonize \u00a0Eurocentric \u00a0logics \u00a0of \u00a0white, \u00a0anthropocentric \u00a0supremacy. \u00a0Their \u00a0scholarship \u00a0reveals \u00a0how \u00a0legacies \u00a0of \u00a0colonialism \u00a0are \u00a0also \u00a0deeply \u00a0invested \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0construction \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0human\/nonhuman \u00a0binary \u00a0in \u00a0ways \u00a0that \u00a0provide \u00a0the \u00a0anchor \u00a0for \u00a0racism \u00a0and \u00a0white \u00a0supremacy\u2014a \u00a0binary \u00a0that \u00a0works \u00a0to 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\u00a027.3 \u00a0(2012): \u00a0529. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a021 \u00a0See \u00a0Adams \u00a0and \u00a0Gruen \u00a02014. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a022 \u00a0See \u00a0Deckha \u00a02006 \u00a0and \u00a02008;\u037e \u00a0Ko \u00a02016, \u00a0Castricano \u00a0and \u00a0Corman \u00a02016 \u00a0(forthcoming), \u00a0for \u00a0examples. \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 10\t \u00a0that \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0animals \u00a0continue \u00a0to \u00a0face \u00a0today.23 \u00a0Scholars \u00a0such \u00a0as \u00a0Margaret \u00a0Robinson \u00a0and \u00a0Billy-\u00adRay \u00a0Belcourt \u00a0explore \u00a0the \u00a0human\/nonhuman \u00a0relationship \u00a0and \u00a0make \u00a0calls \u00a0to \u00a0decolonial \u00a0activists \u00a0to \u00a0consider \u00a0the \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0and \u00a0to \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0and \u00a0CAS \u00a0scholars \u00a0to \u00a0consider \u00a0indigeneity \u00a0and \u00a0colonialism \u00a0in \u00a0their \u00a0work \u00a0on \u00a0animal \u00a0activism.24 \u00a0 \u00a0Interest \u00a0in \u00a0veganism \u00a0has \u00a0grown \u00a0recently \u00a0in \u00a0both \u00a0academic \u00a0thought \u00a0and \u00a0in \u00a0popular \u00a0culture. \u00a0Harper \u00a0takes \u00a0a \u00a0critical \u00a0race \u00a0approach \u00a0to \u00a0veganism \u00a0with \u00a0research \u00a0on \u00a0neoliberal \u00a0whiteness \u00a0and \u00a0vegan \u00a0consumption. \u00a0Her \u00a0theories \u00a0are \u00a0particularly \u00a0useful \u00a0for \u00a0my \u00a0research \u00a0on \u00a0representations \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0in \u00a0feminist \u00a0media. \u00a0Harper \u00a0writes \u00a0of \u00a0a \u00a0post-\u00adracial \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0movement: \u00a0 \u00a0My \u00a0critique \u00a0is \u00a0that \u00a0there \u00a0are \u00a0those \u00a0(white \u00a0and \u00a0non-\u00adwhite) \u00a0who \u00a0believe \u00a0\"race \u00a0is \u00a0a \u00a0feeble \u00a0matter\" \u00a0in \u00a0animal \u00a0rights \u00a0activism. \u00a0Such \u00a0people \u00a0are \u00a0producing \u00a0and \u00a0practicing \u00a0their \u00a0own \u00a0\"post-\u00adracial\" \u00a0epistemologies \u00a0and \u00a0praxis \u00a0of \u00a0AR\/VEG \u00a0\"cruelty \u00a0free \u00a0ethics.\" \u00a0Simultaneously, \u00a0such \u00a0\"post-\u00adracial\" \u00a0approaches \u00a0ignore \u00a0dependence \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0exploited \u00a0labor \u00a0of \u00a0non-\u00adwhite \u00a0racialized \u00a0minorities \u00a0living \u00a0outside \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0USA, \u00a0who \u00a0are \u00a0producing \u00a0materials \u00a0for \u00a0vegan \u00a0products.25 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Harper \u00a0interrogates \u00a0the \u00a0notion \u00a0that \u00a0there \u00a0is \u00a0only \u00a0one \u00a0\u2018ethical\u2019 \u00a0way \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0vegan \u00a0and \u00a0explores \u00a0the \u00a0ways \u00a0in \u00a0which \u00a0the \u00a0vegan \u00a0praxis \u00a0of \u00a0black \u00a0women \u00a0is \u00a0tied \u00a0first \u00a0to \u00a0\u201cdecolonizing \u00a0their \u00a0bodies \u00a0from \u00a0the \u00a0legacies \u00a0of \u00a0racialized \u00a0colonialism, \u00a0such \u00a0as \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a023 \u00a0Marjorie \u00a0Spiegel, \u00a0The \u00a0Dreaded \u00a0Comparison: \u00a0Human \u00a0and \u00a0Animal \u00a0Slavery, \u00a0rev. \u00a0& \u00a0expand \u00a0ed. \u00a0(New \u00a0York: \u00a0Mirror \u00a0Books, \u00a01996). \u00a0 \u00a024 \u00a0Margaret \u00a0Robinson, \u00a0\u201cAnimal \u00a0Personhood \u00a0in \u00a0Mi'kmaq \u00a0Perspective,\u201d \u00a0Societies \u00a04.4 \u00a0(2014);\u037e \u00a0Billy-\u00adRay \u00a0Belcourt, \u00a0\u201cAnimal \u00a0Bodies, \u00a0Colonial \u00a0Subjects\u201d: \u00a0(Re)locating \u00a0Animality \u00a0in \u00a0Decolonial \u00a0Thought,\u201d \u00a0Societies \u00a05.1 \u00a0(2015). \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a025 \u00a0Breeze \u00a0Harper, \u00a0\u201cRace \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0\u2018Feeble \u00a0Matter\u2019 \u00a0in \u00a0Veganism: \u00a0Interrogating \u00a0Whiteness, \u00a0Geopolitical \u00a0Privilege, \u00a0and \u00a0Consumption \u00a0Philosophy \u00a0of \u00a0\u2018Cruelty-\u00adFree\u2019 \u00a0Products,\u201d \u00a0Journal \u00a0for \u00a0Critical \u00a0Animal \u00a0Studies, \u00a0Volume \u00a0VIII.3, \u00a02010, \u00a018. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 11\t \u00a0institutional \u00a0and \u00a0structural \u00a0racism\u201d26 \u00a0rather \u00a0than \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation. \u00a0With \u00a0the \u00a0Sistah \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Project, \u00a0Harper \u00a0counters \u00a0mainstream \u00a0vegan \u00a0epistemologies \u00a0and \u00a0narratives \u00a0of \u00a0post-\u00adracial \u00a0consumption \u00a0and \u00a0argues \u00a0that \u00a0because, \u00a0collectively, \u00a0black \u00a0people \u00a0are \u00a0still \u00a0\u201cdealing \u00a0with \u00a0human \u00a0rights \u00a0to \u00a0health \u00a0and \u00a0food \u00a0security,\u201d27 \u00a0black \u00a0vegans \u00a0prioritize \u00a0a \u00a0race-\u00adconscious \u00a0health \u00a0motive \u00a0rather \u00a0than \u00a0an \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0motive. \u00a0She \u00a0writes: \u00a0\u201cThis \u00a0is \u00a0not \u00a0to \u00a0say \u00a0that \u00a0there \u00a0are \u00a0no \u00a0black \u00a0people \u00a0who \u00a0are \u00a0convinced \u00a0to \u00a0go \u00a0vegan \u00a0after \u00a0reading \u00a0about \u00a0animal \u00a0rights;\u037e \u00a0for \u00a0those \u00a0who \u00a0do, \u00a0many \u00a0still \u00a0have \u00a0a \u00a0race-\u00adconscious \u00a0and \u00a0African \u00a0American \u00a0health-\u00adoriented \u00a0approach \u00a0to \u00a0how \u00a0they \u00a0engage \u00a0in \u00a0animal \u00a0rights.\u201d28 \u00a0 \u00a0Laura \u00a0Wright \u00a0brings \u00a0Harper\u2019s \u00a0theories \u00a0into \u00a0conversation \u00a0with \u00a0ecofeminism \u00a0in \u00a0her \u00a0recent \u00a0book, \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Studies.29 \u00a0Wright \u00a0is \u00a0proposing \u00a0to \u00a0establish \u00a0the \u00a0field \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0studies \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0discipline \u00a0that \u00a0is \u00a0\u201ca \u00a0product \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0discourse \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0representation \u00a0as \u00a0situated \u00a0within \u00a0and \u00a0outside \u00a0of \u00a0extant \u00a0conceptions \u00a0of \u00a0animal \u00a0studies, \u00a0animal \u00a0welfare\/rights\/liberation, \u00a0and \u00a0ecofeminism.30 \u00a0In \u00a0an \u00a0effort \u00a0to \u00a0tease \u00a0out \u00a0the \u00a0myriad \u00a0manifestations \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0identity \u00a0and \u00a0explicate \u00a0the \u00a0complex \u00a0histories \u00a0and \u00a0trajectories \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a026 \u00a0Breeze \u00a0Harper, \u00a0\u201cGoing \u00a0Beyond \u00a0the \u00a0Normative \u00a0White \u00a0\u2018Post-\u00adRacial\u2019 \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Epistemology,\u201d \u00a0in \u00a0Taking \u00a0Food \u00a0Public: \u00a0Redefining \u00a0Foodways \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0Changing \u00a0World, \u00a0ed. \u00a0Psyche \u00a0A. \u00a0Williams-\u00adForson \u00a0and \u00a0Carole \u00a0Counihan \u00a0(New \u00a0York: \u00a0Routledge, \u00a02012), \u00a0163. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a027 \u00a0Harper, \u00a0\u201cGoing \u00a0Beyond,\u201d \u00a0163. \u00a0 \u00a028 \u00a0Harper, \u00a0\u201cGoing \u00a0Beyond,\u201d \u00a0163. \u00a0 \u00a029 \u00a0Forthcoming \u00a0publication \u00a0Critical \u00a0Perspectives \u00a0on \u00a0Veganism \u00a0(Palgrave \u00a0Macmillan \u00a02016), \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0CAS \u00a0scholars \u00a0Castricano \u00a0and \u00a0Simonsen, \u00a0contributes \u00a0further \u00a0to \u00a0the \u00a0field \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0studies. \u00a0Concerned \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0recent \u00a0rise \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0in \u00a0mainstream \u00a0discourse, \u00a0this \u00a0book \u00a0\u201casks \u00a0whether \u00a0the \u00a0normalization \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0strengthens \u00a0or \u00a0detracts \u00a0from \u00a0the \u00a0radical \u00a0impetus \u00a0of \u00a0its \u00a0politics\u201d \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0collection \u00a0of \u00a0essays \u00a0(as \u00a0quoted \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0Palgrave \u00a0site). \u00a0This \u00a0thesis \u00a0asks \u00a0questions \u00a0that \u00a0align \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0rise \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0studies \u00a0in \u00a0academic \u00a0thought. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a030 \u00a0Laura \u00a0Wright, \u00a0The \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Studies \u00a0Project: \u00a0Food, \u00a0Animals, \u00a0and \u00a0Gender \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0Age \u00a0of \u00a0Terror, \u00a0(Athens: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Georgia \u00a0Press, \u00a02015), \u00a02. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 12\t \u00a0of \u00a0both \u00a0the \u00a0concept \u00a0and \u00a0practice, \u00a0Wright \u00a0puts \u00a0Harper\u2019s \u00a0research \u00a0on \u00a0Black \u00a0women\u2019s \u00a0vegan \u00a0identities \u00a0into \u00a0conversation \u00a0with \u00a0Greta \u00a0Gaard\u2019s \u00a0queer \u00a0ecofeminism.31 \u00a0This, \u00a0she \u00a0concludes, \u00a0helps \u00a0to \u00a0reconcile \u00a0the \u00a0decolonial \u00a0politics \u00a0of \u00a0vegans \u00a0of \u00a0color \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0politics. \u00a0She \u00a0writes: \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0If \u00a0I \u00a0push \u00a0Gaard\u2019s \u00a0queer \u00a0ecofeminism \u00a0into \u00a0the \u00a0space \u00a0of \u00a0Harper\u2019s \u00a0explication \u00a0of \u00a0black \u00a0female \u00a0vegan \u00a0identity, \u00a0it \u00a0becomes \u00a0impossible \u00a0not \u00a0to \u00a0see \u00a0decolonization \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0as \u00a0necessarily \u00a0linked. \u00a0Queering \u00a0vegan \u00a0studies, \u00a0therefore, \u00a0might \u00a0allow \u00a0us \u00a0to \u00a0make \u00a0a \u00a0space \u00a0for \u00a0veganism \u00a0to \u00a0exist \u00a0at \u00a0once \u00a0as \u00a0multiple \u00a0things: \u00a0as \u00a0an \u00a0orientation, \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0socially \u00a0conscious \u00a0choice, \u00a0and \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0decision \u00a0based \u00a0on \u00a0a \u00a0politics \u00a0of \u00a0health-\u00adbased \u00a0racial \u00a0decolonization.32 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0By \u00a0looking \u00a0forward \u00a0to \u00a0an \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0and \u00a0vegan \u00a0praxis \u00a0that \u00a0rejects \u00a0binaries, \u00a0fixed \u00a0boundaries, \u00a0and \u00a0sees \u00a0the \u00a0multivalent \u00a0potential \u00a0in \u00a0veganism, \u00a0Wright, \u00a0following \u00a0Harper \u00a0and \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0finds \u00a0potential \u00a0for \u00a0veganism \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0meaningful \u00a0and \u00a0still \u00a0revolutionary, \u00a0for \u00a0both \u00a0humans \u00a0and \u00a0non, \u00a0in \u00a0its \u00a0various \u00a0and \u00a0interlocked \u00a0forms \u00a0of \u00a0political \u00a0praxis. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Another \u00a0theory \u00a0that \u00a0informs \u00a0this \u00a0work \u00a0is \u00a0psychologist \u00a0and \u00a0public \u00a0speaker \u00a0Melanie \u00a0Joy\u2019s \u00a0concept \u00a0of \u00a0carnism. \u00a0Carnism, \u00a0she \u00a0poses, \u00a0refers \u00a0to \u00a0the \u00a0invisible \u00a0belief \u00a0system \u00a0that \u00a0enables \u00a0humans \u00a0to \u00a0consume \u00a0animals \u00a0the \u00a0way \u00a0that \u00a0we \u00a0do \u00a0(i.e. \u00a0upholding \u00a0some \u00a0species \u00a0as \u00a0companions \u00a0and \u00a0others \u00a0as \u00a0objects \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0violently \u00a0exploited). \u00a0Like \u00a0Adams\u2019 \u00a0process \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0absent \u00a0referent, \u00a0Joy \u00a0explains \u00a0that \u00a0it \u00a0is \u00a0a \u00a0gap \u00a0in \u00a0consciousness \u00a0that \u00a0allows \u00a0for \u00a0us \u00a0to \u00a0have \u00a0inconsistent \u00a0relationships \u00a0with \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0animals, \u00a0i.e. \u00a0loving \u00a0some \u00a0and \u00a0eating \u00a0others. \u00a0Joy \u00a0explains \u00a0how \u00a0this \u00a0gap \u00a0in \u00a0consciousness \u00a0becomes \u00a0internalized \u00a0to \u00a0the \u00a0point \u00a0of \u00a0psychic \u00a0numbing \u00a0and \u00a0invisibility.33 \u00a0Similarly, \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a031 \u00a0Greta \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0\u201cToward \u00a0A \u00a0Queer \u00a0Ecofeminism,\u201d \u00a0Hypatia \u00a012.1 \u00a0(1997): \u00a0114-\u00ad37. \u00a0 \u00a032 \u00a0Wright, \u00a0The \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Studies \u00a0Project, \u00a010. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a033 \u00a0Joy, \u00a0Why \u00a0We \u00a0Love \u00a0Dogs, \u00a0Eat \u00a0Pigs, \u00a0and \u00a0Wear \u00a0Cows, \u00a018. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 13\t \u00a0media \u00a0scholar, \u00a0Carrie \u00a0Packwood \u00a0Freeman, \u00a0builds \u00a0on \u00a0Joy\u2019s \u00a0theory \u00a0and \u00a0coins \u00a0the \u00a0term \u00a0\u201ccarnonormativity\u201d \u00a0to \u00a0identify \u00a0how \u00a0speciesism \u00a0and, \u00a0thus, \u00a0carnism, \u00a0is \u00a0the \u00a0assumed \u00a0norm. \u00a0She \u00a0points \u00a0out \u00a0that \u00a0across \u00a0media, \u00a0and \u00a0similar \u00a0to \u00a0heterosexuality, \u00a0humans \u00a0are \u00a0assumed \u00a0always \u00a0already \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0carnists \u00a0unless \u00a0identified \u00a0otherwise.34 \u00a0These \u00a0key \u00a0terms \u00a0and \u00a0theories \u00a0help \u00a0to \u00a0identify \u00a0and \u00a0analyze \u00a0representations \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0as \u00a0they \u00a0play \u00a0out \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0publics \u00a0that \u00a0popular \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0occupies. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 Following \u00a0vegan \u00a0ecofeminists \u00a0and \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0scholars, \u00a0my \u00a0intentions \u00a0with \u00a0this \u00a0research \u00a0are \u00a0to \u00a0consider \u00a0where \u00a0and \u00a0how \u00a0veganism \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism 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\u00a0nonwestern \u00a0women \u00a0suddenly \u00a0emerged \u00a0during \u00a0the \u00a0third \u00a0wave \u00a0after \u00a0European \u00a0women \u00a0had \u00a0laid \u00a0the \u00a0groundwork. \u00a0I \u00a0concede \u00a0that \u00a0this \u00a0essay \u00a0reproduces \u00a0that \u00a0narrative \u00a0in \u00a0its \u00a0effort \u00a0to \u00a0trace \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0thought \u00a0in \u00a0media. \u00a0More \u00a0scholarship \u00a0needs \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0done \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0origins \u00a0of \u00a0vegetarian \u00a0ecofeminist \u00a0thought \u00a0from \u00a0a \u00a0postcolonial \u00a0theoretical \u00a0perspective. \u00a0To \u00a0start \u00a0see: \u00a0Ghandi \u00a02006;\u037e \u00a0Deckha \u00a02008;\u037e \u00a0and \u00a0Harper \u00a02010. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 16\t \u00a0popular \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0in \u00a0later \u00a0movements \u00a0framed \u00a0the \u00a0animal \u00a0question \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0special \u00a0topic \u00a0or \u00a0individual \u00a0choices \u00a0rather \u00a0than \u00a0as \u00a0an \u00a0essential \u00a0component \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0discourse. \u00a0Leah \u00a0Leneman, \u00a0British \u00a0scholar \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0and \u00a0vegetarian \u00a0history, \u00a0notes \u00a0about \u00a0the \u00a0magazine: \u00a0 \u00a0Two \u00a0early \u00a0articles \u00a0(February \u00a0and \u00a0May \u00a01893), \u00a0entitled \u00a0\u2018To \u00a0Beginners\u2019, \u00a0provided \u00a0advice \u00a0on \u00a0how \u00a0to \u00a0go \u00a0about \u00a0adopting \u00a0a \u00a0vegetarian \u00a0diet. \u00a0There \u00a0was \u00a0no \u00a0attempt \u00a0to \u00a0put \u00a0forward \u00a0any \u00a0rationale \u00a0for \u00a0doing \u00a0so;\u037e \u00a0it \u00a0was \u00a0clearly \u00a0felt \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0self-\u00adevident.39 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Shafts \u00a0often \u00a0made \u00a0connections \u00a0between \u00a0injustices \u00a0explicit \u00a0in \u00a0its \u00a0content: \u00a0Edith \u00a0Ward, \u00a0in \u00a0penning 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\u00a0Vivisection.\u201d \u00a0History \u00a0Workshop \u00a0Journal \u00a040 \u00a0(1995), \u00a018. \u00a0 \u00a044 \u00a0Coral \u00a0Lansbury, \u00a0The \u00a0Old \u00a0Brown \u00a0Dog: \u00a0Women, \u00a0Workers, \u00a0And \u00a0Vivisection \u00a0in \u00a0Edwardian \u00a0England, \u00a0(Madison, \u00a0WI: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Wisconsin \u00a0Press, \u00a01985),129. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 18\t \u00a0class \u00a0base.\u201d45 \u00a0Indeed, \u00a0Despard \u00a0articulated \u00a0the \u00a0intersections \u00a0of \u00a0oppression \u00a0clearly \u00a0when \u00a0she \u00a0spoke \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0Theosophical46 \u00a0societies \u00a0that \u00a0were \u00a0popular \u00a0among \u00a0feminists \u00a0at \u00a0the \u00a0time: \u00a0 \u00a0Related \u00a0with \u00a0Theosophy, \u00a0the \u00a0Women\u2019s \u00a0Movement \u00a0is \u00a0related \u00a0also \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0other \u00a0great \u00a0movements \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0world. \u00a0. \u00a0. \u00a0The 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\u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Awakened \u00a0Instinct,\u201d \u00a0281. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a046 \u00a0Theosophy \u00a0refers \u00a0to \u00a0an \u00a0esoteric \u00a0spiritual \u00a0movement \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0nineteenth \u00a0century \u00a0that \u00a0appropriated \u00a0and \u00a0promoted \u00a0concepts \u00a0of \u00a0spiritual \u00a0enlightenment \u00a0from \u00a0Eastern \u00a0religions. \u00a0Leneman \u00a0explains \u00a0that \u00a0Theosophy \u00a0attracted \u00a0women \u00a0due \u00a0to \u00a0its \u00a0many \u00a0opportunities \u00a0for \u00a0leadership \u00a0and \u00a0philosophical \u00a0notions \u00a0of \u00a0equality \u00a0denied \u00a0women \u00a0in \u00a0other \u00a0religions. \u00a0Further, \u00a0Leneman \u00a0claims \u00a0Theosophy\u2019s \u00a0connection \u00a0with \u00a0Hinduism \u00a0makes \u00a0for \u00a0a \u00a0natural \u00a0promotion \u00a0of \u00a0vegetarianism \u00a0(277). \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a047 \u00a0Quoted \u00a0in \u00a0Leneman, \u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Awakened 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\u00a0were \u00a0made \u00a0up, \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0majority, \u00a0of \u00a0women. \u00a0These \u00a0activists \u00a0made \u00a0appeals \u00a0by \u00a0presenting \u00a0connections \u00a0between \u00a0the \u00a0plight \u00a0of \u00a0women \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0treatment \u00a0of \u00a0animals. \u00a0White \u00a0addressed \u00a0the \u00a0National \u00a0Council \u00a0for \u00a0Women \u00a0making \u00a0an \u00a0appeal \u00a0for \u00a0the \u00a0inclusion \u00a0of \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0which \u00a0was, \u00a0again, \u00a0published \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0Journal \u00a0for \u00a0Zoophilia: \u00a0\u201cExperiments \u00a0upon \u00a0the \u00a0tender \u00a0maternal \u00a0instinct \u00a0of \u00a0dogs \u00a0have \u00a0been \u00a0made \u00a0over \u00a0and \u00a0over \u00a0again, \u00a0suggested, \u00a0as \u00a0we \u00a0can \u00a0only \u00a0think, \u00a0by \u00a0stony \u00a0hearts \u00a0and \u00a0depraved \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t 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\u00a0farming \u00a0animals \u00a0in \u00a0euphemisms\u2014a \u00a0function \u00a0of \u00a0carnism. \u00a0Consistent \u00a0throughout \u00a0Bust, \u00a0the \u00a0authors \u00a0are \u00a0speaking \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0colloquial \u00a0and \u00a0personal \u00a0style \u00a0about \u00a0commodities \u00a0rather \u00a0than \u00a0engaging \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0discussion \u00a0of \u00a0factory \u00a0farming \u00a0directly. \u00a0Still, \u00a0they \u00a0include \u00a0recommendations \u00a0for \u00a0consuming \u00a0animals \u00a0ethically, \u00a0while \u00a0ignoring \u00a0arguments, \u00a0like \u00a0those \u00a0made \u00a0in \u00a0critical \u00a0animal \u00a0studies \u00a0and \u00a0elsewhere, \u00a0in \u00a0regards \u00a0to \u00a0animals \u00a0having \u00a0a \u00a0right \u00a0to \u00a0their \u00a0own \u00a0lives. \u00a0Another \u00a0post \u00a0enthusiastically \u00a0promotes \u00a0the \u00a0Certified \u00a0Humane \u00a0App \u00a0which \u00a0informs \u00a0users \u00a0of \u00a0particular 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\u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0141 \u00a0Evelyn \u00a0Chapman, \u00a0\u201cRaw \u00a0Milk \u00a0or \u00a0No \u00a0Raw \u00a0Milk. \u00a0That \u00a0is \u00a0the \u00a0Questions, \u00a0Here \u00a0are \u00a0some \u00a0Answers,\u201d \u00a0BUST, \u00a0accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/eat-\u00adme\/14043-\u00adraw-\u00admilk-\u00ador-\u00adno-\u00adraw-\u00admilk-\u00adthat-\u00adis-\u00adthe-\u00adquestion-\u00adhere-\u00adare-\u00adsome-\u00adanswers.html \u00a0 \u00a0142 \u00a0Sonia \u00a0Edwards, \u00a0\u201cPin-\u00adUp \u00a0Girls \u00a0And \u00a0Chicken \u00a0Farming? \u00a0You \u00a0Betcha!\u201d \u00a0BUST, \u00a0accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/style\/12827-\u00adpin-\u00adup-\u00adgirls-\u00adand-\u00adchicken-\u00adfarming-\u00adyou-\u00adbetcha.html \u00a0 \u00a0143 \u00a0Kari \u00a0Belshein, \u00a0\u201cCertified \u00a0Humane \u00a0Releases \u00a0Cruelty-\u00adFree \u00a0App,\u201d \u00a0BUST, \u00a0accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/8980-\u00adcertified-\u00adhumane-\u00adreleases-\u00adcruelty-\u00adfree-\u00adapp.html \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 71\t \u00a0should \u00a0make \u00a0an \u00a0effort \u00a0to \u00a0\u201cgo \u00a0the \u00a0humane \u00a0route \u00a0if \u00a0you \u00a0can.\u201d144 \u00a0In \u00a0this \u00a0way, \u00a0Bust \u00a0invokes \u00a0\u201chumane\u201d \u00a0and \u00a0\u201cethical\u201d \u00a0for \u00a0both \u00a0veganism \u00a0and \u00a0carnism\u2014\t \u00a0effectively \u00a0collapsing \u00a0the \u00a0irreconcilable \u00a0differences \u00a0that \u00a0exist \u00a0between \u00a0individuals \u00a0who \u00a0fundamentally \u00a0believe \u00a0that \u00a0the \u00a0exploitation \u00a0of \u00a0animals \u00a0is \u00a0never \u00a0justified \u00a0and \u00a0those \u00a0that \u00a0do. \u00a0 \u00a0To reiterate, Bust vaguely links animal activism to feminism by adopting the rhetoric of the \u201chumane meat\u201d movement, conflating veganism and humane meat under an ethical umbrella. This presents animal welfare as something of concern to Bust feminists, but couches veganism in terms of individual conscientious choice rather than a feminist imperative tied to the liberation of women. This approach, both in Bust and in the humane movement, minimizes the innate violence involved in farming animals and instead substitutes a sort of superficial, guilt-absolving caring for liberation. Bust makes it clear in their posts that animal activism, and more generally, animal welfare, is of interest to their readers, but these are subsumed by Bust\u2019s neoliberal and third-wave rhetoric of choice that evades any discussion regarding animals themselves. Bust\u2019s lack of intersectional perspectives in their commodity activism, and vague, inconsistent use of terms like \u201cethical\u201d and \u201ccruelty-free\u201d is more in line with mainstream media representations of animal activism\u2014welfare-based and brand\/commodity-focused\u2014veganism as a compassionate option rather than an ethical imperative. Stanescu writes of the humane movement: The emphasis is less on the reality of the animals\u2019 actual lives (mutilations, castration, forced breeding, genetic breeding, etc.), as on \t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0144 \u00a0Chef \u00a0Rossi, \u00a0\u201cWhere\u2019s \u00a0the \u00a0Beef?\u201d \u00a0BUST \u00a0Magazine, \u00a0Jan\/Feb \u00a02012, \u00a029 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 72\t \u00a0the \u201cbrand\u201d name quality of the product, advertised as more \u201clocal\u201d and more \u201ccompassionate.\u201d This reason is why the emphasis is on the purchasing of \u201chappy\u201d meat instead of a firm boycott of factory farms: The ultimate goal is to increase the sales of these farmers rather than to decrease production or consumption of factory-farmed animals. As a business model, such a strategy has been remarkably successful. However, from the standpoint of concern for animals (or, for that matter, the environment), the benefit is significantly less clear.145 Stanescu reminds feminists and other readers that regardless of how \u201chumane\u201d the farming of animals might be it all ends with someone unwillingly losing their life. Moreover, it also means that prior to slaughter, animals must still undergo stressful events necessary for the farm to profit like transport, branding\/docking, and, most poignant for feminism, forced breeding (decidedly out of step with tenets of feminism which uphold bodily autonomy and sexual freedom as core values). Stanescu counters the rhetoric of the humane meat movement, as is expressed in Bust, by unmasking the violence inherent in animal farming. Bust, like the humane movement, utilizes \u201cexpressions of care for animals [that] serve to mask the simple reality that for the entirety of their lives, these animals live as only buyable and sellable commodities, who exist wholly at the whim of their \u2018owners.\u2019\u201d146 Though Bust draws attention to issues of animal welfare through the promotion of vegan commodities and animal activism, their conflation with the humane movement further separates animal liberation from feminism by advocating a practice that is inherently inconsistent with feminist values. Ultimately, this reinforces hegemonic ideologies of \t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0145 \u00a0Stanescu, \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0\u2018Loving\u2019 \u00a0Animals \u00a0Is \u00a0Not \u00a0Enough: \u00a0A \u00a0Response \u00a0to \u00a0Kathy \u00a0Rudy, \u00a0Locavorism, \u00a0and \u00a0The \u00a0Marketing \u00a0of \u00a0\u2018Humane\u2019 \u00a0Meat,\u201d \u00a0107. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0146 \u00a0Stanescu, \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0\u2018Loving\u2019 \u00a0Animals \u00a0Is \u00a0Not \u00a0Enough,\u201d \u00a0108. \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 73\t \u00a0carnism, speciesism, and the erasure of actual lived experiences of nonhuman animals. Bust\u2019s significant inclusion of vegan and animal activism topics does, in one reading, continue the history of feminist media\u2019s inclusion of animal issues; however, their reduction of animal activism to one of personal choice and employment of humane movement rhetoric overshadows any resistance to carnism and instead maintains speciesism by shrouding the inherent violence necessary in farming animals in euphemisms of love, care, and sympathy. \t \u00a0 74\t \u00a0CHAPTER \u00a06 \u00a0 \u00a0RADICAL \u00a0FEMINIST \u00a0MEDIA, \u00a0MOVING \u00a0FROM \u00a0SYMPATHY \u00a0TO \u00a0EMPATHY, \u00a0AND \u00a0AN \u00a0EPISTIMOLOGICAL \u00a0REVOLUTION \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0Loving \u00a0women \u00a0is \u00a0an \u00a0improvement \u00a0over \u00a0hating \u00a0them, \u00a0kindness \u00a0to \u00a0animals \u00a0is \u00a0an \u00a0improvement \u00a0over \u00a0cruelty, \u00a0but \u00a0neither \u00a0has \u00a0freed \u00a0them \u00a0nor \u00a0recognizes \u00a0their \u00a0existence \u00a0on \u00a0their \u00a0own \u00a0terms. \u00a0 \u00a0-\u00ad-\u00adCatharine \u00a0MacKinnon, \u00a0Women\u2019s \u00a0Lives, \u00a0Men\u2019s \u00a0Laws \u00a0 \u00a0With \u00a0mainstream \u00a0media \u00a0trending \u00a0both \u00a0feminist \u00a0and \u00a0vegan \u00a0identities, \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0for \u00a0widespread \u00a0crossover \u00a0between \u00a0mainstream \u00a0and \u00a0countercultural \u00a0public \u00a0spheres \u00a0is \u00a0a \u00a0timely \u00a0and \u00a0salient \u00a0issue. \u00a0My \u00a0intention \u00a0to \u00a0examine \u00a0and \u00a0draw \u00a0out \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0to \u00a0spread \u00a0awareness \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0plight \u00a0of \u00a0animals, \u00a0an \u00a0oppression \u00a0anchored \u00a0to \u00a0and \u00a0deeply \u00a0intertwined \u00a0with \u00a0all \u00a0oppressions, \u00a0was \u00a0made \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0aim \u00a0of \u00a0harnessing \u00a0the \u00a0power \u00a0of \u00a0popular \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0to \u00a0balance \u00a0ideology \u00a0and \u00a0business \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0consumer-\u00adcapitalist \u00a0culture. \u00a0Feminist \u00a0new \u00a0media, \u00a0in \u00a0particular, \u00a0has \u00a0proven \u00a0successful \u00a0at \u00a0consciousness-\u00adraising \u00a0and \u00a0reaching \u00a0far \u00a0outside \u00a0the \u00a0feminist \u00a0blogosphere. \u00a0Andi \u00a0Zeisler, \u00a0critic \u00a0and \u00a0founder \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0magazine \u00a0Bitch, \u00a0 \u00a0notes: \u00a0\u201c[n]ew \u00a0media \u00a0have \u00a0started \u00a0memes \u00a0that \u00a0percolate \u00a0in \u00a0blogs \u00a0and \u00a0spread \u00a0beyond \u00a0them, \u00a0seeping \u00a0into \u00a0mainstream \u00a0discourse.\u201d147 \u00a0This \u00a0is \u00a0where \u00a0my \u00a0research \u00a0seeks \u00a0to \u00a0both \u00a0find \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0of \u00a0including \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0rising \u00a0power \u00a0of \u00a0new \u00a0feminist \u00a0media, \u00a0while \u00a0tracing \u00a0the \u00a0historical \u00a0link \u00a0between \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0and \u00a0feminism \u00a0into \u00a0the \u00a0changing \u00a0media \u00a0landscapes \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a021st \u00a0century. \u00a0I \u00a0started \u00a0with \u00a0Bust \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0case \u00a0study \u00a0because \u00a0of \u00a0its \u00a0popularity \u00a0and \u00a0its \u00a0relationship \u00a0with \u00a0subcultures, \u00a0also \u00a0important \u00a0for \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0\t \u00a0147 \u00a0Andi \u00a0Zeisler, \u00a0\u201cNew \u00a0Media, \u00a0New \u00a0Feminism: \u00a0Evolving \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Analysis \u00a0and \u00a0Activism \u00a0in \u00a0Print, \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0Web \u00a0and \u00a0Beyond,\u201d \u00a0in \u00a0Renewing \u00a0Feminisms: \u00a0Radical \u00a0Narratives, \u00a0Fantasies \u00a0and \u00a0Futures \u00a0in \u00a0Media \u00a0Studies, \u00a0ed. \u00a0Helen, \u00a0Thornham \u00a0and \u00a0Elke \u00a0Weissmann, \u00a0(I.B. \u00a0Tauris, \u00a02013), \u00a0180. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 75\t \u00a0social \u00a0movements, \u00a0and \u00a0its \u00a0significant \u00a0amount \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0content. \u00a0What \u00a0I \u00a0found \u00a0has \u00a0implications \u00a0for \u00a0both \u00a0the \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0feminist \u00a0movements. \u00a0 \u00a0The \u00a0vegan \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0discourses \u00a0Bust \u00a0offers \u00a0readers \u00a0appears \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0depoliticized, \u00a0though \u00a0the \u00a0discourses \u00a0represent \u00a0and \u00a0seem \u00a0intended \u00a0as \u00a0new \u00a0ways \u00a0to \u00a0ethically \u00a0navigate \u00a0consumer \u00a0capitalism \u00a0via \u00a0commodity \u00a0activism. \u00a0However, \u00a0the \u00a0language \u00a0Bust \u00a0uses \u00a0leans \u00a0more \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0trendiness \u00a0of \u00a0veganism \u00a0rather \u00a0than \u00a0the \u00a0impact \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0lives \u00a0of \u00a0individual \u00a0animals. \u00a0Additionally, \u00a0Bust \u00a0content \u00a0only \u00a0offers \u00a0what \u00a0Harper \u00a0calls \u00a0\u201cpost-\u00adracial \u00a0veganism\u201d \u00a0in \u00a0these \u00a0discourses. \u00a0Combined \u00a0with \u00a0trendy \u00a0commodity \u00a0activism, \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0vegan \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0content \u00a0reflects \u00a0and \u00a0reinforces \u00a0that \u00a0notion \u00a0that \u00a0veganism \u00a0is \u00a0strictly \u00a0the \u00a0stomping \u00a0ground \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0privileged. \u00a0This \u00a0representation \u00a0is \u00a0aligned \u00a0with \u00a0mainstream \u00a0media\u2019s \u00a0representation \u00a0of \u00a0middle-\u00adclass \u00a0white \u00a0people \u00a0as \u00a0the \u00a0sole \u00a0face \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0movement.148 \u00a0 \u00a0With \u00a0the \u00a0promise \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0new \u00a0media\u2019s \u00a0impact \u00a0on \u00a0popular \u00a0culture, \u00a0and \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0inclusion \u00a0of \u00a0language \u00a0that \u00a0implies \u00a0a \u00a0feminist \u00a0imperative \u00a0to \u00a0care \u00a0for \u00a0nonhuman \u00a0animals, \u00a0Bust \u00a0reveals \u00a0the \u00a0potential \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0media \u00a0to \u00a0raise \u00a0consciousness \u00a0about \u00a0vegan \u00a0feminist \u00a0movements, \u00a0but \u00a0only \u00a0scratches \u00a0the \u00a0surface \u00a0of \u00a0a 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\u00a0recognized \u00a0a \u00a0distinct \u00a0alignment \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0humane \u00a0meat \u00a0movement, \u00a0despite \u00a0the \u00a0frequent \u00a0inclusion \u00a0of \u00a0vegan \u00a0products. \u00a0So \u00a0while \u00a0it \u00a0gives \u00a0me \u00a0hope \u00a0that \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0commodity \u00a0activism \u00a0signals \u00a0continued \u00a0genuine \u00a0interest \u00a0in \u00a0animal \u00a0activism \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0tenet \u00a0of \u00a0feminism, \u00a0and \u00a0even \u00a0an \u00a0interest \u00a0in \u00a0new \u00a0ways \u00a0of \u00a0navigating \u00a0capitalism, \u00a0without \u00a0a \u00a0truly \u00a0intersectional \u00a0analysis \u00a0informing \u00a0this \u00a0praxis, \u00a0Bust\u2019s \u00a0 \t \u00a0 82\t \u00a0veganism \u00a0is \u00a0kept \u00a0at \u00a0a \u00a0distance \u00a0from \u00a0fundamental \u00a0tenets \u00a0of \u00a0feminism \u00a0and \u00a0simply \u00a0reflects \u00a0and \u00a0reinforces \u00a0already \u00a0mainstream \u00a0inconsistencies \u00a0within \u00a0the \u00a0movements. \u00a0With \u00a0the \u00a0contemporary \u00a0potential \u00a0of \u00a0feminist \u00a0new \u00a0media \u00a0to \u00a0exchange \u00a0with \u00a0the \u00a0mainstream, \u00a0it \u00a0is \u00a0important \u00a0to \u00a0use \u00a0media \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0platform \u00a0for \u00a0intersectional \u00a0feminist \u00a0and \u00a0animal \u00a0liberation \u00a0messages \u00a0while \u00a0being \u00a0careful \u00a0to \u00a0include \u00a0comprehensive \u00a0perspectives \u00a0that \u00a0do \u00a0not \u00a0reinforce \u00a0neoliberal \u00a0whiteness \u00a0and \u00a0to \u00a0amplify \u00a0perspectives \u00a0that \u00a0center \u00a0intersectional \u00a0understandings \u00a0of \u00a0justice. \u00a0In \u00a0sum, \u00a0in \u00a0order \u00a0for \u00a0our \u00a0feminism \u00a0to \u00a0be \u00a0effective, \u00a0we \u00a0must \u00a0include \u00a0an \u00a0understanding \u00a0that \u00a0our \u00a0liberation \u00a0is \u00a0bound \u00a0with \u00a0the 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\u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Adams, \u00a0Carol \u00a0J. \u00a0The \u00a0Sexual \u00a0Politics \u00a0of \u00a0Meat: \u00a0A \u00a0Feminist-\u00adVegetarian \u00a0Critical \u00a0Theory. \u00a0 \u00a020th \u00a0Anniversary \u00a0Ed. \u00a0New \u00a0York;\u037e \u00a0London: \u00a0Continuum, \u00a02010. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Adams, \u00a0Carol \u00a0J. \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0feminist-\u00advegan \u00a0now?\u201d \u00a0Feminism \u00a0& \u00a0Psychology \u00a020.3 \u00a0(2010): \u00a0 \u00a0302-\u00ad17. \u00a0 \u00a0Adams, \u00a0Carol \u00a0J., \u00a0and \u00a0Lori \u00a0Gruen. \u00a0\u201cGroundwork.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Ecofeminism: \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Intersections \u00a0with \u00a0Other \u00a0Animals \u00a0and \u00a0The \u00a0Earth, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Carol \u00a0J. \u00a0Adams \u00a0and \u00a0Lori \u00a0Gruen, \u00a07-\u00ad36. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Bloomsbury, \u00a02014. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Adams, \u00a0Carol \u00a0J., \u00a0and \u00a0Josephine \u00a0Donovan. \u00a0Animals \u00a0and \u00a0Women: \u00a0Feminist \u00a0 \u00a0Theoretical \u00a0Explorations. \u00a0Durham: \u00a0Duke \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a01995. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Atton, \u00a0Chris. \u00a0Alternative \u00a0media. \u00a0Thousand \u00a0Oaks;\u037e \u00a0London: \u00a0Sage, \u00a02002. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Belshein, \u00a0Kari. \u00a0\u201cCertified \u00a0Humane \u00a0Releases \u00a0Cruelty-\u00adFree \u00a0App.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/8980-\u00adcertified-\u00adhumane-\u00adreleases-\u00adcruelty-\u00adfree-\u00adapp.html \u00a0 \u00a0Budgeon, \u00a0Shelley. \u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Contradictions \u00a0of \u00a0Successful \u00a0Femininity: \u00a0Third-\u00adWave \u00a0 \u00a0Feminism, \u00a0Postfeminism \u00a0and \u00a0\u2018New\u2019 \u00a0Femininities.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0New \u00a0Femininities: \u00a0Postfeminism, \u00a0Neoliberalism, \u00a0and \u00a0Subjectivity, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Rosalind \u00a0Gill \u00a0and \u00a0Christina \u00a0Scharff. \u00a0New \u00a0York;\u037e \u00a0Houndmills, \u00a0Basingstoke, \u00a0Hampshire: \u00a0Palgrave \u00a0Macmillan, \u00a02011. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Buettinger, \u00a0Craig. \u00a0\"Women \u00a0and \u00a0Antivivisection \u00a0in \u00a0Late \u00a0Nineteenth-\u00adCentury \u00a0 \u00a0America.\" \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Social \u00a0History \u00a030.4 \u00a0(1997): \u00a0857-\u00ad72. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Carr, \u00a0C. \u00a0S. \u00a0The \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Zoophily \u00a060.6 \u00a0(1910): \u00a0132. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Castricano, \u00a0Jodey. \u00a0Animal \u00a0Subjects: \u00a0An \u00a0Ethical \u00a0Reader \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0Posthuman \u00a0World. \u00a0North \u00a0 \u00a0York;\u037e \u00a0Waterloo: \u00a0Wilfrid \u00a0Laurier \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02008. \u00a0 \u00a0Castricano, \u00a0Jodey \u00a0and \u00a0Lauren \u00a0Corman. \u00a0Animal \u00a0Subjects \u00a02.0. \u00a0North \u00a0York;\u037e \u00a0Waterloo: \u00a0 \u00a0Wilfrid \u00a0Laurier \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 84\t \u00a0Castricano, \u00a0Jodey, \u00a0and \u00a0Rasmus \u00a0Simonsen. \u00a0Critical \u00a0Perspectives \u00a0on \u00a0Veganism. \u00a0 \u00a0Palgrave \u00a0Macmillian, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Cavendish, \u00a0Margaret. \u00a0Philosophical \u00a0Letters, \u00a0or, \u00a0Modest \u00a0reflections \u00a0upon \u00a0some \u00a0 \u00a0opinions \u00a0in \u00a0natural \u00a0philosophy: \u00a0Maintained \u00a0by \u00a0several \u00a0famous \u00a0and \u00a0learned \u00a0authors \u00a0of \u00a0this \u00a0age, \u00a0expressed \u00a0by \u00a0way \u00a0of \u00a0letters. \u00a0London, \u00a01664. \u00a0 \u00a0Cavendish, \u00a0Margaret. \u00a0Poems \u00a0and \u00a0Fancies. \u00a0London: \u00a0Printed \u00a0by \u00a0T.R. \u00a0for \u00a0J. \u00a0Martin, \u00a0and \u00a0J. \u00a0Allestrye, \u00a01653. \u00a0 \u00a0Chapman, \u00a0Evelyn. \u00a0\u201cRaw \u00a0Milk \u00a0or \u00a0No \u00a0Raw \u00a0Milk. \u00a0That \u00a0is \u00a0the \u00a0Question, \u00a0Here \u00a0are \u00a0some \u00a0 \u00a0Answers.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/eat-\u00adme\/14043-\u00adraw-\u00admilk-\u00ador-\u00adno-\u00adraw-\u00admilk-\u00adthat-\u00adis-\u00adthe-\u00adquestion-\u00adhere-\u00adare-\u00adsome-\u00adanswers.html \u00a0 \u00a0Chef \u00a0Rossi. \u00a0\u201cWhere\u2019s \u00a0the \u00a0Beef?\u201d \u00a0BUST \u00a0Magazine. \u00a0Jan\/Feb \u00a02012: \u00a029. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Cherry, \u00a0Elizabeth. \u00a0\"I \u00a0was \u00a0a \u00a0Teenage \u00a0Vegan: \u00a0Motivation \u00a0and \u00a0Maintenance \u00a0of \u00a0Lifestyle \u00a0 \u00a0Movements.\" \u00a0Sociological \u00a0Inquiry \u00a085.1 \u00a0(2015): \u00a055-\u00ad74. \u00a0 \u00a0Clark, \u00a0Emily. \u00a0\u201c'The \u00a0Animal' \u00a0and \u00a0'The \u00a0Feminist.'\u201d \u00a0Hypatia: \u00a0A \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Feminist \u00a0 \u00a0Philosophy \u00a027.3 \u00a0(2012): \u00a0516-\u00ad520. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Cole, \u00a0Matthew \u00a0and \u00a0Karen \u00a0Morgan. \u00a0\u201cVegaphobia: \u00a0Derogatory \u00a0Discourses \u00a0of \u00a0 \u00a0Veganism \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0Reproduction \u00a0of \u00a0Speciesism \u00a0in \u00a0UK \u00a0National \u00a0Newspapers.\u201d \u00a0The \u00a0British \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Sociology \u00a062.1 \u00a0(2011): \u00a0134-\u00ad53 \u00a0 \u00a0Comella, \u00a0Lynn. \u00a0\u201cChanging \u00a0the \u00a0World \u00a0One \u00a0Orgasm \u00a0at \u00a0a \u00a0Time: \u00a0Sex \u00a0Positive \u00a0Retail \u00a0 \u00a0Activism.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Commodity \u00a0Activism: \u00a0Cultural \u00a0Resistance \u00a0in \u00a0Neoliberal \u00a0Times, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Roopali \u00a0Mukherjee, \u00a0et \u00a0al., \u00a0240-\u00ad253. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02012. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Cronin, \u00a0James \u00a0M., \u00a0Mary \u00a0B. \u00a0McCarthy, \u00a0and \u00a0Alan \u00a0M. \u00a0Collins. \u00a0\"Covert \u00a0Distinction: \u00a0How \u00a0 \u00a0Hipsters \u00a0Practice \u00a0Food-\u00adBased \u00a0Resistance \u00a0Strategies \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0Production \u00a0of \u00a0Identity.\" \u00a0Consumption \u00a0Markets \u00a0& \u00a0Culture \u00a017.1 \u00a0(2014): \u00a02-\u00ad28. \u00a0 \u00a0Davidson, \u00a0Erina. \u00a0\"An \u00a0Eco-\u00adProduct \u00a0Junkie's \u00a0Favorite \u00a0\u2018Beauty\u2019 \u00a0Weapons.\" \u00a0BUST. \u00a0 \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/6707-\u00adan-\u00adeco-\u00adproduct-\u00adjunkies-\u00adfavorite-\u00adbeauty-\u00adweapons.html. \u00a0 \u00a0Debbie. \u00a0\u201cLipstick \u00a0on \u00a0a \u00a0Pig: \u00a0Is \u00a0Heidi \u00a0Hatry\u2019s \u00a0Work \u00a0Art \u00a0or \u00a0Animal \u00a0Cruelty? \u00a0BUST. \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/arts\/1918-\u00adlipstick-\u00adon-\u00ada-\u00adpig-\u00adis-\u00adheidi-\u00adhatrys-\u00adwork-\u00adart-\u00ador-\u00adanimal-\u00adcruelty.html \u00a0 \u00a0Deckha, \u00a0Maneesha. \u00a0\"The \u00a0Salience \u00a0of \u00a0Species \u00a0Difference \u00a0for \u00a0Feminist \u00a0 \u00a0Theory.\" \u00a0Hastings \u00a0Women's \u00a0Law \u00a0Journal \u00a017.1 \u00a0(2006): \u00a01-\u00ad38. \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 85\t \u00a0 \u00a0Deckha, \u00a0Maneesha. \u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Subhuman \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0Cultural \u00a0Agent \u00a0of \u00a0Violence.\u201d \u00a0The \u00a0Journal \u00a0 \u00a0for \u00a0Critical \u00a0Animal \u00a0Studies \u00a08.3 \u00a0(2010): \u00a028-\u00ad51. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Deckha, \u00a0Maneesha. \u00a0\"Toward \u00a0a \u00a0Postcolonial, \u00a0Posthumanist \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Theory: \u00a0 \u00a0Centralizing \u00a0Race \u00a0and \u00a0Culture \u00a0in \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Work \u00a0on \u00a0Nonhuman \u00a0Animals.\" \u00a0Hypatia \u00a027.3 \u00a0(2012): \u00a0527-\u00ad45. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0D'Enbeau, \u00a0Suzy. \u00a0\u201cFeminine \u00a0and \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Transformation \u00a0in \u00a0Popular \u00a0Culture: \u00a0An \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Application \u00a0of \u00a0Mary \u00a0Daly's \u00a0Radical \u00a0Philosophies \u00a0to \u00a0Bust \u00a0Magazine.\u201d \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Media \u00a0Studies \u00a09.1 \u00a0(2009): \u00a017-\u00ad36. \u00a0 \u00a0D'Enbeau, \u00a0Suzy. \u00a0\u201cSex, \u00a0Feminism, \u00a0and \u00a0Advertising: \u00a0The \u00a0Politics \u00a0of \u00a0Advertising \u00a0 \u00a0Feminism \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0Competitive \u00a0Marketplace.\u201d \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Communication \u00a0Inquiry \u00a035.1 \u00a0(2011): \u00a053-\u00ad69. \u00a0 \u00a0Duncan, \u00a0Tess. \u00a0\u201cRock \u00a0Dreams: \u00a0Meredith \u00a0of \u00a0Perfect \u00a0Pussy \u00a0Sings \u00a0about \u00a0the \u00a0Stuff \u00a0 \u00a0That\u2019s \u00a0Worth \u00a0Hating.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/music\/11579-\u00adrock-\u00addreams-\u00admeredith-\u00adof-\u00adperfect-\u00adpussy-\u00adsings-\u00adabout-\u00adthe-\u00adstuff-\u00adthats-\u00adworth-\u00adhating.html \u00a0 \u00a0Earnst, \u00a0Katharine. \u00a0\u201cNeko \u00a0Case: \u00a0BUST \u00a0Cover \u00a0Girl \u00a0Helps \u00a0Out \u00a0Furry \u00a0Friends \u00a0with \u00a0new \u00a0 \u00a0PSA.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/music\/10397-\u00adneko-\u00adcase-\u00adbust-\u00adcover-\u00adgirl-\u00adhelps-\u00adout-\u00adfurry-\u00adfriends-\u00adwith-\u00adnew-\u00adpsa.html \u00a0 \u00a0Edell, \u00a0Celia. \u00a0\u201cDoes \u00a0Feminism \u00a0Require \u00a0Vegetarianism \u00a0or \u00a0Veganism?\u201d \u00a0Everyday \u00a0 \u00a0Feminism. \u00a0February \u00a017, \u00a02016. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a017, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/everydayfeminism.com\/2016\/02\/feminism-\u00adand-\u00advegetarianism\/ \u00a0 \u00a0Edwards, \u00a0Sonia. \u00a0\u201cPin-\u00adUp \u00a0Girls \u00a0and \u00a0Chicken \u00a0Farming? \u00a0You \u00a0Betcha!\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0 \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/style\/12827-\u00adpin-\u00adup-\u00adgirls-\u00adand-\u00adchicken-\u00adfarming-\u00adyou-\u00adbetcha.html \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Esquilin, \u00a0Amanda. \u00a0\"Beauty \u00a0for \u00a0the \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Soul: \u00a0BUST \u00a0Craftacular \u00a0Boston.\" \u00a0BUST. \u00a0 \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/diy\/15064-\u00adbeauty-\u00adfor-\u00adthe-\u00advegan-\u00adsoul-\u00adbust-\u00adcraftacular-\u00adboston.html \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Freeman, \u00a0Carrie \u00a0Packwood \u00a0and \u00a0Scott \u00a0Tulloch. \u00a0\u201cWas \u00a0Blind \u00a0but \u00a0Now \u00a0I \u00a0See: \u00a0Animal \u00a0 \u00a0Liberation \u00a0Documentaries\u2019 \u00a0Deconstructions \u00a0of \u00a0Barriers \u00a0to \u00a0Witnessing \u00a0Injustice.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Screening \u00a0Nature: \u00a0Cinema \u00a0Beyond \u00a0the \u00a0Human, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Anat \u00a0Pick \u00a0and \u00a0Guinevere \u00a0Narraway, \u00a0110-\u00ad126. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Berghahn \u00a0Books, \u00a02013. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Freeman, \u00a0Carrie \u00a0Packwood. \u00a0\u201cLisa \u00a0and \u00a0Phoebe, \u00a0Lone \u00a0Vegetarian \u00a0Icons: \u00a0At \u00a0Odds \u00a0with \u00a0 \u00a0Television\u2019s \u00a0Carnonormativity.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0How \u00a0Television \u00a0Shapes \u00a0Our \u00a0Worldview: \u00a0Media \u00a0Representations \u00a0of \u00a0Social \u00a0Trends \u00a0and \u00a0Change, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Deborah \u00a0A. \u00a0 \t \u00a0 86\t \u00a0Macey, \u00a0Kathleen \u00a0M. \u00a0Ryan, \u00a0and \u00a0Noah \u00a0J. \u00a0Springer, \u00a0193-\u00ad212. \u00a0Lanham, \u00a0Maryland: \u00a0Lexington \u00a0Books, \u00a02014. \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cFrench \u00a0Twist: \u00a0Sultry \u00a0Singer \u00a0Soko \u00a0Brings \u00a0Raw \u00a0Emotion \u00a0to \u00a0her \u00a0New \u00a0Album.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0 \u00a0Accessed \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/music\/13697-\u00adfrench-\u00adtwist-\u00adsultry-\u00adsinger-\u00adsoko-\u00adbrings-\u00adraw-\u00ademotion-\u00adto-\u00adher-\u00adnew-\u00adalbum.html \u00a0 \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0Greta. \u00a0Ecofeminism: \u00a0Women, \u00a0Animals, \u00a0Nature. \u00a0Philadelphia: \u00a0Temple \u00a0 \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a01993. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0Greta. \u00a0\"Ecofeminism \u00a0Revisited: \u00a0Rejecting \u00a0Essentialism \u00a0and \u00a0Re-\u00adPlacing \u00a0 \u00a0Species \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0Material \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Environmentalism.\" \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Formations \u00a023.2 \u00a0(2011): \u00a026-\u00ad53. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0Greta. \u00a0\"New \u00a0Directions \u00a0for \u00a0Ecofeminism: \u00a0Toward \u00a0a \u00a0More \u00a0Feminist \u00a0 \u00a0Ecocriticism.\" \u00a0Isle: \u00a0Interdisciplinary \u00a0Studies \u00a0in \u00a0Literature \u00a0and \u00a0Environment \u00a017.4 \u00a0(2010): \u00a01-\u00ad23. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0Greta. \u00a0\u201cToward \u00a0A \u00a0Queer \u00a0Ecofeminism.\u201d \u00a0Hypatia \u00a012.1 \u00a0(1997): \u00a0114-\u00ad37. \u00a0 \u00a0Gaard, \u00a0Greta. \u00a0\u201cVegetarian \u00a0Ecofeminism: \u00a0A \u00a0Review \u00a0Essay.\u201d \u00a0Frontiers: \u00a0A \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0 \u00a0Women \u00a0Studies \u00a023.3 \u00a0(2002): \u00a0117-\u00ad46. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Gaarder, \u00a0Emily. \u00a0Women \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0Animal \u00a0Rights \u00a0Movement. \u00a0New \u00a0Brunswick, \u00a0N.J: \u00a0 \u00a0Rutgers \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02011. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Gandhi, \u00a0Leela. \u00a0Affective \u00a0Communities: \u00a0Anticolonial \u00a0Thought, \u00a0Fin-\u00adDe-\u00adSi\u00e8cle \u00a0 \u00a0Radicalism, \u00a0and \u00a0The \u00a0Politics \u00a0of \u00a0Friendship. \u00a0Durham, \u00a0N.C.: \u00a0Duke \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02006. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Garner, \u00a0Dwight. \u00a0\"The \u00a0Days \u00a0of \u00a0Their \u00a0Lives: \u00a0Lesbians \u00a0Star \u00a0in \u00a0Funny \u00a0Pages.\" \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0 \u00a0Times, \u00a0December \u00a02, \u00a02008. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0April \u00a04, \u00a02015. \u00a0http:\/\/www.nytimes.com\/2008\/12\/03\/books\/03garner.html \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cGet \u00a0Hip \u00a0to \u00a0Animals \u00a0and \u00a0Get \u00a0Hip \u00a0Doing \u00a0It.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/3247-\u00adget-\u00adhip-\u00adto-\u00adanimals-\u00adand-\u00adget-\u00adhip-\u00addoing-\u00adithtml.html \u00a0 \u00a0Gianoulis, \u00a0Tina. \u00a0\"Hipsters.\" \u00a0In \u00a0St. \u00a0James \u00a0Encyclopedia \u00a0of \u00a0Popular \u00a0Culture, \u00a02nd \u00a0ed., \u00a0 \u00a0vol. \u00a02, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Thomas \u00a0Riggs, \u00a0675-\u00ad676. \u00a0Detroit: \u00a0St. \u00a0James \u00a0Press, \u00a02013. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Groeneveld, \u00a0Elizabeth. \u00a0\u201c'Be \u00a0a \u00a0Feminist \u00a0or \u00a0Just \u00a0Dress \u00a0Like \u00a0One': \u00a0BUST, \u00a0Fashion \u00a0and \u00a0 \u00a0Feminism \u00a0as \u00a0Lifestyle.\u201d \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Gender \u00a0Studies \u00a018 \u00a0(2009): \u00a0179-\u00ad90. \u00a0 \u00a0Gruen, \u00a0Lori. \u00a0Entangled \u00a0Empathy: \u00a0An \u00a0Alternative \u00a0Ethic \u00a0for \u00a0Our \u00a0Relationships \u00a0with \u00a0 \u00a0Animals. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Lantern \u00a0Books, \u00a02014. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 87\t \u00a0Harper, \u00a0Breeze. \u00a0\u201cConnections: \u00a0Speciesism, \u00a0Racism, \u00a0and \u00a0Whiteness \u00a0as \u00a0the \u00a0Norm.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0 \u00a0Sister \u00a0Species: \u00a0Women, \u00a0Animals \u00a0and \u00a0Social \u00a0Justice, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Lisa \u00a0Kemmerer, \u00a072-\u00ad78. \u00a0Urbana, \u00a0Chicago, \u00a0and \u00a0Springfield: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Illinois \u00a0Press, \u00a02011. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Harper, \u00a0Breeze. \u00a0\u201cGoing \u00a0Beyond \u00a0the \u00a0Normative \u00a0White \u00a0\u2018Post-\u00adRacial\u2019 \u00a0Vegan \u00a0 \u00a0Epistemology.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Taking \u00a0Food \u00a0Public: \u00a0Redefining \u00a0Foodways \u00a0in \u00a0a \u00a0Changing \u00a0World, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Psyche \u00a0A. \u00a0Williams-\u00adForson \u00a0and \u00a0Carole \u00a0Counihan, \u00a0155-\u00ad174. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Routledge, \u00a02012. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Harper \u00a0Breeze. \u00a0\u201cRace \u00a0as \u00a0a \u00a0\u2018Feeble \u00a0Matter\u2019 \u00a0in \u00a0Veganism: \u00a0Interrogating \u00a0Whiteness, \u00a0 \u00a0Geopolitical \u00a0Privilege, \u00a0and \u00a0Consumption \u00a0Philosophy \u00a0of \u00a0\u2018Cruelty-\u00adFree\u2019 \u00a0Products.\u201d \u00a0Journal \u00a0for \u00a0Critical \u00a0Animal \u00a0Studies, \u00a0Volume \u00a0VIII.3 \u00a0(2010): \u00a05-\u00ad27. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Harvey, \u00a0David. \u00a0A \u00a0Brief \u00a0History \u00a0of \u00a0Neoliberalism. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Oxford \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a0 \u00a0Incorporated, \u00a02007. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Hearne, \u00a0Alison. \u00a0\u201cBrand \u00a0Me \u00a0Activist.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Commodity \u00a0Activism: \u00a0Cultural \u00a0Resistance \u00a0in \u00a0 \u00a0Neoliberal \u00a0Times. \u00a0Edited \u00a0by \u00a0Roopali \u00a0Mukherjee \u00a0et \u00a0al., \u00a023-\u00ad38. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02012. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Heywood, \u00a0Leslie, \u00a0Jennifer \u00a0Drake. \u00a0Third \u00a0Wave \u00a0Agenda: \u00a0Being \u00a0Feminist, \u00a0Doing \u00a0 \u00a0Feminism. \u00a0Minneapolis: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Minnesota \u00a0Press, \u00a01997. \u00a0 \u00a0\"History.\" \u00a0Bloodroot \u00a0Restaurant. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0April \u00a04, \u00a02015. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/www.bloodroot.com\/history\/ \u00a0 \u00a0Ikegami, \u00a0Eiko. \u00a0\"A \u00a0Sociological \u00a0Theory \u00a0of \u00a0Publics: \u00a0Identity \u00a0and \u00a0Culture \u00a0as \u00a0Emergent \u00a0 \u00a0Properties \u00a0in \u00a0Networks.\" \u00a0Social \u00a0Research \u00a067.4 \u00a0(2000): \u00a0989-\u00ad1029. \u00a0 \u00a0Intern \u00a0Mary \u00a0Ann. \u00a0\u201cWill \u00a0We \u00a0See \u00a0You \u00a0At \u00a0The \u00a0Seed \u00a0This \u00a0Weekend?\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/7971-\u00adwill-\u00adwe-\u00adsee-\u00adyou-\u00adat-\u00adthe-\u00adseed-\u00adthis-\u00adweekend.html \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cIndie \u00a0Craft \u00a0Fairs \u00a0for \u00a0Maker \u00a0| \u00a0BUST \u00a0Craftacular.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a00 \u00a0April \u00a05, \u00a02015. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/craftacular\/bust-\u00adcraftacular-\u00adhome.html \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Joy, \u00a0Melanie. \u00a0Why \u00a0We \u00a0Love \u00a0Dogs, \u00a0Eat \u00a0Pigs, \u00a0and \u00a0Wear \u00a0Cows: \u00a0An \u00a0Introduction \u00a0to \u00a0 \u00a0Carnism. \u00a0San \u00a0Francisco: \u00a0Conari \u00a0Press, \u00a02010. \u00a0 \u00a0Kean, \u00a0Hilda. \u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Feminist \u00a0and \u00a0Socialist \u00a0Response \u00a0to \u00a0Vivisection.\u201d \u00a0History \u00a0 \u00a0Workshop \u00a0Journal \u00a040 \u00a0(1995): \u00a016-\u00ad38. \u00a0 \u00a0Kearns, \u00a0Megan. \u00a0\"Fit \u00a0To \u00a0Print: \u00a0Bust \u00a0Magazine, \u00a0The \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Press \u00a0& \u00a0Feminism \u00a0In \u00a0Media \u00a0At \u00a0Soapbox \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Winter \u00a0Term \u00a0\u2013 \u00a0Day \u00a02\". \u00a0The \u00a0Opinioness \u00a0of \u00a0the \u00a0World. \u00a0January \u00a028, \u00a02011. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0April \u00a01, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \t \u00a0 88\t \u00a0https:\/\/opinionessoftheworld.com\/2011\/01\/28\/bust-\u00admag-\u00adfeminist-\u00adpress-\u00adand-\u00adfeminism-\u00adin-\u00admedia-\u00adat-\u00adsoapbox-\u00adfeminist-\u00adwinter-\u00adterm-\u00adday-\u00ad2\/ \u00a0 \u00a0Ko, \u00a0Aph. \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0Animal \u00a0Liberation \u00a0Requires \u00a0an \u00a0Epistemological \u00a0Revolution.\u201d \u00a0 \u00a0Aph-\u00adroism. \u00a0February \u00a024, \u00a02016. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0May \u00a01, \u00a02016. \u00a0https:\/\/aphro-\u00adism.com\/2016\/02\/24\/why-\u00adanimal-\u00adliberation-\u00adrequires-\u00adan-\u00adepistemological-\u00adrevolution\/ \u00a0 \u00a0Ko, \u00a0Syl. \u00a0\u201cAddressing \u00a0Racism \u00a0Requires \u00a0Addressing \u00a0the \u00a0Situation \u00a0of \u00a0Animals,\u201d \u00a0 \u00a0Aph-\u00adroism. \u00a0October \u00a026, \u00a02015. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0November \u00a03, \u00a02016. \u00a0https:\/\/aphro-\u00adism.com\/2015\/10\/26\/addressing-\u00adracism-\u00adrequires-\u00adaddressing-\u00adthe-\u00adsituation-\u00adof-\u00adanimals\/ \u00a0 \u00a0Krosser, \u00a0Carry. \u00a0\u201cEllen \u00a0Wants \u00a0You \u00a0to \u00a0go \u00a0Vegan.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/eat-\u00adme\/6723-\u00adellen-\u00adwants-\u00adyou-\u00adto-\u00adgo-\u00advegan.html \u00a0 \u00a0Kuhn, \u00a0Gabriel. \u00a0Sober \u00a0Living \u00a0for \u00a0the \u00a0Revolution: \u00a0Hardcore \u00a0Punk, \u00a0Straight \u00a0Edge, \u00a0and \u00a0 \u00a0Radical \u00a0Politics. \u00a0Oakland, \u00a0CA: \u00a0PM \u00a0Press, \u00a02010. \u00a0 \u00a0Lansbury, \u00a0Coral. \u00a0The \u00a0Old \u00a0Brown \u00a0Dog: \u00a0Women, \u00a0Workers, \u00a0And \u00a0Vivisection \u00a0in \u00a0 \u00a0Edwardian \u00a0England. \u00a0Madison, \u00a0WI: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Wisconsin \u00a0Press, \u00a01985. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Licona, \u00a0Adela \u00a0C. \u00a0Zines \u00a0in \u00a0Third \u00a0Space: \u00a0Radical \u00a0Cooperation \u00a0and \u00a0Borderlands \u00a0 \u00a0Rhetoric. \u00a0Albany, \u00a0NY: \u00a0State \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0Press, \u00a02012. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Leneman, \u00a0Leah. \u00a0\u201cThe \u00a0Awakened \u00a0Instinct: \u00a0Vegetarianism \u00a0and \u00a0The \u00a0Women's \u00a0Suffrage \u00a0 \u00a0Movement \u00a0in \u00a0Britain.\u201d \u00a0Women's \u00a0History \u00a0Review \u00a06.2 \u00a0(1997): \u00a0271-\u00ad87. \u00a0 \u00a0Leneman, \u00a0Leah. \u00a0\u201cNo \u00a0Animal \u00a0Food: \u00a0The \u00a0Road \u00a0to \u00a0Veganism \u00a0in \u00a0Britain, \u00a01909-\u00ad1944.\u201d \u00a0 \u00a0Society \u00a0& \u00a0Animals \u00a07.3 \u00a0(1999.): \u00a0219-\u00ad28. \u00a0 \u00a0MacKinnon, \u00a0Catharine \u00a0A. \u00a0Women\u2019s \u00a0Lives, \u00a0Men\u2019s \u00a0Laws. \u00a0Cambridge: \u00a0Belknap \u00a0Press \u00a0 \u00a0of \u00a0Harvard \u00a0UP, \u00a02005. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Marshall, \u00a0Barbara \u00a0L. \u00a0\u201cCommunication \u00a0as \u00a0Politics: \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Print \u00a0Media \u00a0in \u00a0English \u00a0 \u00a0Canada.\u201d \u00a0Women's \u00a0Studies \u00a0International \u00a0Forum \u00a018.4 \u00a0(1995): \u00a0463-\u00ad474. \u00a0 \u00a0McRobbie, \u00a0Angela. \u00a0\"Beyond \u00a0Post-\u00ad\u2010Feminism.\" \u00a0Public \u00a0Policy \u00a0Research \u00a018.3 \u00a0(2011): \u00a0 \u00a0179-\u00ad84. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0McQuirter, \u00a0Tracye. \u00a0\"Black \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Pioneers.\" \u00a0By \u00a0Any \u00a0Greens \u00a0Necessary. \u00a0December \u00a0 \u00a04, \u00a02013. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0August \u00a01, \u00a02015. \u00a0http:\/\/trendwave.com\/healthy-\u00adrecipes\/blog-\u00ad-\u00ad-\u00adbyanygreensnecessary.com \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 89\t \u00a0Mukherjee, \u00a0Roopali \u00a0and \u00a0Sarah \u00a0Banet-\u00adWeiser. \u00a0\u201cIntroduction: \u00a0Commodity \u00a0Activism \u00a0in \u00a0 \u00a0Neoliberal \u00a0Times.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Commodity \u00a0Activism: \u00a0Cultural \u00a0Resistance \u00a0in \u00a0Neoliberal \u00a0Times, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Roopali \u00a0Mukherjee, \u00a0et \u00a0al., \u00a01-\u00ad22. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0University \u00a0Press, \u00a02012. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Nocella, \u00a0Anthony \u00a0et \u00a0al. \u00a0Introduction \u00a0to \u00a0Defining \u00a0Critical \u00a0Animal \u00a0Studies, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0 \u00a0Nocella \u00a0et \u00a0al., \u00a0xix-\u00adxxxiv. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Peter \u00a0Lang \u00a0Publishing, \u00a02014. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Payseno, \u00a0Kaya. \u00a0\u201cChildbirth \u00a0Goes \u00a0Super \u00a0Pink \u00a0Funny \u00a0Feminist \u00a0on \u00a0new \u00a0Album \u00a0\u2018Women\u2019s \u00a0Rights\u2019: \u00a0A \u00a0BUST \u00a0Interview.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/music\/14929-\u00adchildbirth-\u00adgoes-\u00adsuper-\u00adpunk-\u00adfunny-\u00adfeminist-\u00adon-\u00adnew-\u00adalbum-\u00adwomen-\u00ads-\u00adrights-\u00adbust-\u00adinterview.html \u00a0 \u00a0Piepmeier, \u00a0Alison. \u00a0Girl \u00a0Zines: \u00a0Making \u00a0Media, \u00a0Doing \u00a0Feminism. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0 \u00a0University \u00a0Press. \u00a01-\u00ad21, \u00a02009. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Plumwood, \u00a0Val. \u00a0Feminism \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0Mastery \u00a0of \u00a0Nature. \u00a0Florence;\u037e \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0 \u00a0Routledge, \u00a01993. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Rauch, \u00a0Jennifer. \u00a0\u201cExploring \u00a0the \u00a0Alternative-\u00adMainstream \u00a0Dialectic: \u00a0What \u00a0\u2018Alternative \u00a0 \u00a0Media\u2019 \u00a0Means \u00a0to \u00a0a \u00a0Hybrid \u00a0Audience.\u201d \u00a0Communication, \u00a0Culture \u00a0& \u00a0Critique \u00a08.1 \u00a0(2015): \u00a0124-\u00ad43. \u00a0 \u00a0Rems, \u00a0Emily. \u00a0\u201cIs \u00a0Speciesism \u00a0an \u00a0Issue \u00a0that \u00a0Matters \u00a0to \u00a0You.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/movies\/10585-\u00adis-\u00adspeciesism-\u00adan-\u00adissue-\u00adthat-\u00admatters-\u00adto-\u00adyou.html \u00a0 \u00a0Robinson, \u00a0Margaret. \u00a0\u201cAnimal \u00a0Personhood \u00a0in \u00a0Mi'kmaq \u00a0Perspective.\u201d \u00a0Societies \u00a04.4 \u00a0(2014): \u00a0672-\u00ad688. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Ryder, \u00a0Richard, \u00a0\u201cSpeciesism.\u201d \u00a0In \u00a0Encyclopedia \u00a0of \u00a0Animal \u00a0Rights \u00a0and \u00a0Animal \u00a0Welfare, \u00a0 \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Marc \u00a0Bekoff \u00a0and \u00a0Carron \u00a0A. \u00a0Meaney, \u00a0320. \u00a0Westport, \u00a0Conn: \u00a0Greenwood \u00a0Press, \u00a01998. \u00a0 \u00a0Samantha. \u00a0\u201cCraftacular \u00a0Vendor \u00a0Spotlight: \u00a0Farm \u00a0Sanctuary \u00a0featuring \u00a0The \u00a0Discerning \u00a0 \u00a0Brute, \u00a0Farm \u00a0Sanctuary, \u00a0and \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Treats.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/eat-\u00adme\/6373-\u00adcraftacular-\u00advendor-\u00adspotlight-\u00adfarm-\u00adsanctuary-\u00adfeaturing-\u00adthe-\u00addiscerning-\u00adbrute-\u00adand-\u00advegan-\u00adtreats.html \u00a0 \u00a0Schiermer, \u00a0Bj\u00f8rn. \u00a0\u201cLate-\u00adModern \u00a0Hipsters: \u00a0New \u00a0Tendencies \u00a0in \u00a0Popular \u00a0Culture.\u201d \u00a0Acta \u00a0 \u00a0Sociologica \u00a057.2 \u00a0(2014): \u00a0167-\u00ad81. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Schilt, \u00a0Kristen \u00a0and \u00a0Elke \u00a0Zobl. \u00a0\"Connecting \u00a0the \u00a0Dots: \u00a0Riot \u00a0Grrls, \u00a0Ladyfests, \u00a0and \u00a0the \u00a0 \u00a0International \u00a0Grrl \u00a0Zine \u00a0Network.\" \u00a0In \u00a0Next \u00a0Wave \u00a0Cultures: \u00a0Feminism, \u00a0Subcultures, \u00a0Activism, \u00a0edited \u00a0by \u00a0Anita \u00a0Harris. \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0City: \u00a0Routledge, \u00a02008, \u00a0171-\u00ad192. \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 90\t \u00a0 \u00a0Sharay, \u00a0Neisha. \u00a0\u201cLet\u2019s \u00a0Talk \u00a0About \u00a0Sex \u00a0Baby.\u201d \u00a0BUST \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/sex\/6673-\u00adlets-\u00adtalk-\u00adabout-\u00adsex-\u00adbaby-\u00adhathor-\u00adaphrodisia-\u00adsensual-\u00adproduct-\u00adreview.html \u00a0 \u00a0Showden, \u00a0Carisa \u00a0R. \u00a0\"What's \u00a0Political \u00a0about \u00a0the \u00a0New \u00a0Feminisms?\" \u00a0Frontiers: \u00a0A \u00a0 \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0Women \u00a0Studies \u00a030.2 \u00a0(2009): \u00a0166-\u00ad98. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Singer, \u00a0Peter. \u00a0Animal \u00a0liberation, \u00a02nd \u00a0ed. \u00a0New \u00a0York, \u00a0N.Y: \u00a0New \u00a0York \u00a0Review \u00a0of \u00a0Books, \u00a0 1990. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Stanescu, \u00a0Vasile. \u00a0\u201cWhy \u00a0\u2018Loving\u2019 \u00a0Animals \u00a0Is \u00a0Not \u00a0Enough: \u00a0A \u00a0Response \u00a0to \u00a0Kathy \u00a0Rudy, \u00a0 \u00a0Locavorism, \u00a0and \u00a0The \u00a0Marketing \u00a0of \u00a0\u201cHumane\u201d \u00a0Meat.\u201d \u00a0The \u00a0Journal \u00a0of \u00a0American \u00a0Culture \u00a036.2 \u00a0(2013): \u00a0100-\u00ad10. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Spiegel, \u00a0Marjorie. \u00a0The \u00a0Dreaded \u00a0Comparison: \u00a0Human \u00a0and \u00a0Animal \u00a0Slavery, \u00a0rev. \u00a0& \u00a0 \u00a0expand \u00a0ed. \u00a0New \u00a0York: \u00a0Mirror \u00a0Books, \u00a01996. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Sylvestre, \u00a0Julie. \u00a0\u201cFringe \u00a0Food \u00a0and \u00a0Renegade \u00a0Words: \u00a0Symbol \u00a0And \u00a0Meaning \u00a0In \u00a0The \u00a0 \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Punk \u00a0And \u00a0Zine \u00a0Subcultures.\u201d \u00a0PhD \u00a0Diss., \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Ottowa, \u00a02010. \u00a0 \u00a0TallBear, \u00a0Kim. \u00a0\u201cAn \u00a0Indigenous \u00a0Reflection \u00a0On \u00a0Working \u00a0Beyond \u00a0the \u00a0Human\/Not \u00a0 \u00a0Human.\u201d \u00a0GLQ \u00a021.2-\u00ad3 \u00a0(2015): \u00a0230-\u00ad235. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Taylor, \u00a0Sunaura. \u00a0\"Beasts \u00a0of \u00a0Burden: \u00a0Disability \u00a0Studies \u00a0and \u00a0Animal \u00a0Rights.\" \u00a0Qui \u00a0 \u00a0Parle: \u00a0Critical \u00a0Humanities \u00a0and \u00a0Social \u00a0Sciences \u00a019.2 \u00a0(2011): \u00a0191-\u00ad222. \u00a0 \u00a0Thierman, \u00a0Stephen. \u00a0\"Apparatuses \u00a0of \u00a0Animality: \u00a0Foucault \u00a0Goes \u00a0to \u00a0a \u00a0 \u00a0Slaughterhouse.\" \u00a0Foucault \u00a0Studies \u00a09 \u00a0(2010): \u00a089-\u00ad110. \u00a0 \u00a0Tilden, \u00a0Emma. \u00a0\u201cVegan \u00a0Guys \u00a0and \u00a0Why \u00a0They\u2019re \u00a0Awesome.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0 \u00a0February \u00a021, \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/eat-\u00adme\/12669-\u00advegan-\u00adguys-\u00adand-\u00adwhy-\u00adtheyre-\u00adawesome.html \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cTop \u00a0Ten \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Halloween \u00a0Candies.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/13246-\u00adtop-\u00ad10-\u00advegan-\u00adhalloween-\u00adcandies.html \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cVegan \u00a0Jackets \u00a0and \u00a0Dollhouse.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/general\/4214-\u00advegan-\u00adjackets-\u00addollhouse.html \u00a0 \u00a0\u201cVegan \u00a0Footwear \u00a0for \u00a0the \u00a0Socially \u00a0Responsible \u00a0Lady.\u201d \u00a0BUST. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0February \u00a07, \u00a0 \u00a02016. \u00a0http:\/\/bust.com\/style\/10329-\u00advegan-\u00adfootwear-\u00adfor-\u00adthe-\u00adsocially-\u00adresponsible-\u00adlady.html \u00a0 \u00a0Williams, \u00a0Zoe. \u00a0\"Close \u00a0Knit.\" \u00a0The \u00a0Guardian. \u00a0January \u00a08, \u00a02005. \u00a0Accessed \u00a0April \u00a010, \u00a0 \u00a02016. \u00a0 \u00a0 \t \u00a0 91\t \u00a0http:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/lifeandstyle\/2005\/jan\/08\/weekend.zoewilliams1. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Wright, \u00a0Laura. \u00a0The \u00a0Vegan \u00a0Studies \u00a0Project: \u00a0Food, \u00a0Animals, \u00a0and \u00a0Gender \u00a0in \u00a0the \u00a0Age \u00a0of \u00a0 \u00a0Terror. \u00a0Athens: \u00a0University \u00a0of \u00a0Georgia \u00a0Press, \u00a02015. \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Zeisler, \u00a0Andi. \u00a0\u201cNew \u00a0Media, \u00a0New \u00a0Feminism: \u00a0Evolving \u00a0Feminist \u00a0Analysis \u00a0and \u00a0Activism \u00a0 \u00a0in \u00a0Print, \u00a0on \u00a0the \u00a0Web \u00a0and \u00a0Beyond.\u201d \u00a0Renewing \u00a0Feminisms: \u00a0Radical \u00a0Narratives, \u00a0Fantasies \u00a0and \u00a0Futures \u00a0in \u00a0Media \u00a0Studies. \u00a0Edited \u00a0by \u00a0Helen, \u00a0Thornham \u00a0and \u00a0Elke \u00a0Weissmann, 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