) -231- 160 300 Y •21 MPa < -30 MPa int02 - 0.23 250 21 MPa 30 MPa - 200 150 or or 100 50 1 -60 -30 -20 0 0 20 40 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) 300 -21 MPa Y O2 = int -30 MPa _ < =° 250 ^ 150 0.19 21 MPa " 30 MPa 200 QT 100 ct X 50 0 -60 -30 0 -20 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Figure A 6 . 6 : 0 20 40 Crank Angle (°CA) Pressure traces and heat-release rates f r o m operating c o n d i t i o n ' 6 ' ( 1 6 0 0 R P M , 13.5 bar G I M E P , 0.6 (j)) -232- 300 18 M P a Y ,o2 = 0.23, 50%IHR = 10°ATDC in 250 22 M P a * 200 -x- 150 -30 0 0 -20 30 160 Y ,O2 = 0.19, 18 M P a 50%IHR= 10°ATDC 22 M P a in 26 M P a ro J_ 30 M P a 0) 5 80 °- 40 cCDo CO 300 Y O 2 = 0.19,

-233- A6.2 Hydrogen Addition 200 120 100 50%IHR = 0°ATDC x 80 CNG o 10%H2 60 CA) ,w,. 1 0 0 / l_IO /ont - 40 CNG x 10%H2 Xll 23%H2 80 a: x// 40 z 0 0 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -20 0 -10 10 20 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) 200 80 50%IHR = 5°ATDC x CNG 60 10%H2 CA) 100 o |_ 50%IHR = 5°ATDC 160 x "1 120 23%H2 cc cc X IS z 40 20 CNG 10%H2 23%H2 80 40 0 0 -20 -40 0 20 40 -20 60 -10 x JSfc 50%IHR= 10°ATDC CNG 10%H2 £ 60 CO _. 200 CA) 80 0 10 20 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) I 50%IHR = 0°ATDC 120 X 20 Jm 160 O 23%H2 x 160 40 80 CC CC X a! z £ 20 50%IHR= 10°ATDC 23%H2 "^_4 120 CO CO QJ CNG 10%H2 40 0 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -10 -20 Crank Angle (°CA) x CNG 50%IHR= 15°ATDC 10%H2 "C 60 ro 200 CA) 80 O 23%H2 J3 S z 0 20 20 30 40 CNG 50%IHR=15°ATDC 23%H2 80 40 -20 60 -10 0 10 20 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) Figure A 6 . 8 : 10 10%H2 120 rt 20 -20 x 160 cc X -40 0 Crank Angle (°CA) Pressure traces a n d heat-release rates for h y d r o g e n a d d i t i o n testing. 8 0 0 R P M , 3.5 bar G I M E P , 0.5 <|>, Y i n t 0 2 = 0.175 -234- 250 50%IHR = 0°ATDC ;\fr~— Methane 200 15% H 2 — # J f ~ Natural Gas /TV 150 100 Cj 35% lb 50 -60 -20 -40 0 20 -20 -10 0 10 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) 50%1HR = 5° ATDC 15% H .- y -40 -20 0 20 -20 -10 Crank Angle (°CA) y\*- Natural Gas 2 0 10 20 15 25 20 30 Crank Angle (°CA) 200 NG 50%1HR = 10° ATDC - 15%H2 150 35%H2 / 100 50 CH4 \ ^ 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -15 Crank Angle ( CA) Crank Angle (°CA) ^ Methane 2 35% H -60 20 150 -60 -40 -20 0 -10 20 10 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) Figure A 6 . 9 : 0 Pressure traces a n d heat-release rates f o r h y d r o g e n a d d i t i o n testing. 1200 R P M , 13.5 bar G I M E P , 0.6 <|>, Y i n t 0 -235- 2 = 0.19 A6.3 Heavy Hydrocarbon Addition 250 50%IHR = 0°ATDC ~ 200 < NG - 6.7%ethane H 150 - 8.9%ethane I 100 x NG 6.7%ethane 8.9%ethane X 0 -60 -30 0 -50 -30 30 -10 30 10 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) NG 50%IHR = 5° ATDC - 6.7%ethane - 8.9%ethane -60 -30 0 -30 30 -10 30 10 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) 200 50%IHR = 10 ATDC NG - 6.7%ethane x < 6.7%ethane - 8.9%ethane -60 -30 0 NG -8.9%ethane -30 30 -10 10 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) 250 50%IHR = 15° ATDC ^ < NG 200 x - 6.7%ethane - 8.9%ethane NG 6.7%ethane I - 8.9%ethane 100 a: o -50 -60 -30 0 30 60 -30 Crank Angle (°CA) -10 10 30 Crank Angle (°CA) F i g u r e A 6 . 1 0 : Pressure traces a n d heat-release rates f o r ethane a d d i t i o n testing. 1200 R P M , 13.5 bar G I M E P , 0.6 i Y o 2 = 0.19 int -236- x NG — 2%prop 4%prop -30 0 -10 Crank Angle (°CA) 10 Crank Angle (°CA) J2 -60 -30 0 30 60 -30 -10 Crank Angle (°CA) -60 -30 0 -30 0 30 Crank Angle (°CA) 60 30 -30 -10 10 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) -60 10 60 30 -30 -10 10 30 Crank Angle (°CA) Crank Angle (°CA) F i g u r e A 6 . 1 1 : Pressure traces a n d heat-release rates for propane a d d i t i o n testing. 1200 R P M , 13.5 bar G I M E P , 0.6 (j), Y to2 = 0 . 1 9 in -237- A6.4 Nitrogen Addition 200 » 50%IHR = 0°ATDC 250 NG x 20%N2 150 £200 ** 40%N2 £ 100 NG 20%N2 40%N2 3- ioo 50 50 0 0 -60 -30 0 30 60 -30 -10 Crank Angle (°CA) 200 & 10 30 Crank Angle (°CA) 250 50%IHR = 5°ATDC * NG 6 200 150 ZU /oiNZ .O 40%N2