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Report of the General Design for the University of British Columbia Nov 10, 1913

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 Vancouver, B. C.
Ho v. 10th. 1913.
To the Board of Governors
of the University of British Columbia,
As the Commission appointed to
examine and report upon the general design for the
University, prepared "by Messrs. Sharp & Thompson,
Architects, we have the honour to present herewith
the result of our findings, which, we are pleased to
say, have the full approval of each individual member of our body.
Very respectfully yours,
(Sgd.)  Warren P. Laird.
(Sgd.)  Thomas H. Mawson.
(Sgd.)  Richard J. Durley.
(Sgd.)  G. £• Thornton Sharp.
(Sgd,)  Charles J. Thompson. >
_■ o—— -*
Scope of
Content of
Pursuant to the instructions of the Board of Governors
the Commission has given careful study to the general design
for the University of British Columbia as prepared and revised
by Messrs. Sharp & Thompson, Architects, having visited and
examined the site and taken into acoount the various governing conditions as brought to their attention*
An enquiry of this nature must of necessity concern
itself broadly with general and preliminary questions upon
whose right determination at this stage will depend the success
of the entire scheme for all time to come.
The further development and actual execution of the design
of course lies entirely within the province of the architects
and their expert colleagues in engineering and landscape practice;   but prior to the detailed consideration of the individual parts or units those large general factors must be decided
which underlie and govern the scheme and affect the economy,
efficiency and beauty of each of its individual parts throughout every stage of its development.    The central purpose
of our study of your problem has therefore been to determine
upon right fundamentals.
The report is cast in three parts, presenting a statement
of the problem to be solved, the solution proposed by the Commission and an acoount of the practical and other possibilities
I - 1. 1, of the design in the course of its development.  The drawings
referred to consist of the architects1 competitive design as
revised and of two diagrams showing (I) the Re-allocation of
building areas herein proposed and (II) the location proposed
for buildings now to be constructed*
The University of British Columbia is here conceived
as an institution of the first order whose scope shall be eo»
extensive with the educational needs of the Province,  This
involves provision for a State University comparable in the
range and magnitude of its activities to the seats of learning
of any country in the world.    To create a comprehensive plan
for the ultimate accomodation of such an organism, it is necessary
at the outset to assume all factors now known to be necessary to
a complete university and also to provide for the future inclusion of other factors which will inevitably develop with the
advance of knowledge and changes in social conditions.
These factors are susceptible of classification under
the following general headings :
I. Administration or Control.
II. Instruction.   The Diffusion of Knowledge.
(a) General Arts and Science.
(b) Applied ( Technical and Professional).
(c) Service ( Libraries, museums etc.)
I- 2.
2. III. Research and Investigation.
The Advancement of Learning.
IV. Community Life.
Social, Recreational, Religious;
For Students, Officers, Employees.
V. Service.
(a) Heat, Light, Power, Sanitation,etc.
(b) Movement of Passengers and visitors, and
(o) Receipt, Transportation and storage of supplies.
(d) Care of Buildings and grounds.
Develop-        Thecreating of a comprehensive design for progressive
ment •
development makes it necessary to provide for the needs of an
institution, potentially great, whose relatively small beginnings
must be arranged with due regard to present economy and efficiency
and in such a manner as to permit them to fall into place in the
steadily developing general scheme.    This twofold aim has
governed the formation of the design covered by this report.
Requirements      A detailed statement of the University requirements is
Institution, unnecessary here, as it was formulated for the competition in
which the original design was produced , and as since modified,
is embodied in the plan now before us.   Certain further modifications laid before us simultaneously with this plan are comprehended in the advices of this report.   We therefore proceed to a consideration of :-
Character of      This lies upon a headland at an elevation of approximate-
ly three hundred feet above the sea, from which it is separated
I- 3. 3. by a steep bluff, crowned in places with a heavy forest growth,
consisting largely of the coniferous trees, characteristic of
this region.
The waters of the Gulf of Georgia form more than half
of the boundary of the site, while its remaining sides adjoin
a tract of some three thousand acres of government land bounded
on its farther side, several miles distant, by a suburb of
Following the recommendation of Dr. C. C. James, Dominion Commissioner of Agricultural Instruction, the University
will ask the Provincial Government to grant two hundred acres
of this land at the South Easterly side for the use of the
University Farm.    On the seaward side the crest of the bluff
is followed by the Marine Drive, at present the thoroughfare
connecting the site with the City on theone side, and with New
Westminster, through Eburne, on the other.  By this drive and
by prospective street car lines, the Institution will lie within
a seven-mile radius from the City centre.
Two The site may be regarded as composed of two, regions ;
one forming the location of the University buildings ; the
other constituting the farm.    The building area occupies
that portion of the site nearest the Gulf, the adjoining farm
lands extending towards the southeast.    This gives to the
building site a northern, and to the farm,a southern exposure.
The farming area, in its character and relation to the University
and its school of agriculture has been made the subject of a
I- 4. 4. special report by Dr. C. C. James.
Aspect The surface of the site may be described as that of a
^gently undulating tableland, somel&at higher than the Marine
Drive, thus securing to the buildings the important advantage of an elevation above their immediate surroundings . The
site is sheltered from the most inclement winds by the belt
of forest lying along a portion of the waterside, while on the
remaining and climatically more favoured exposure, there is
afforded a magnificent panoramic view of Gulf, Bay and forest,
enclosed by an amphitheatre of distant mountains, crowned by
glaciers ana snow peaks.    Reciprocally, a full view of the
University will be afforded to all vessels bound to or from
the City of Vancouver.   Just as the City gains in individual
character because approached by wfcter, so the Campus of the
University will have an unique quality as seen by water, and it
is fortunate that the first impression gained by those who come
to Vancouver by sea will be that of a seat of learning and
Topography        The building area is characterized by a crowning ridge
and soil.
paralleled by gentle depressions which rise slightly toward
the outer margin.   The ridge lies nearly north and south,
dropping gently and directly toward the view.
All these considerations combine to adapt the site very
happily to the needs of a large grouping scheme of buildings,
ensuring as they do economy of grading, natural surface drainage, ease of access and intercommunication, and fine possibilities
of architectural effect in vista and internal and external aspect.
I- 5. 5# The land immediately surrounding the actual building area,
although not of the high quality necessary for agriculture,
is, nevertheless, eminently adapted to garden purposes. The
large amount of vegetable humus lying on a dry subsoil in a
district where the rainfall is considerable, and the humidity
fairly constant, ensures the growth of trees and shrubs and -
the creation of perfect grass lawns , all so essential to the
setting of university groups. The agricultural lands adjacent
to the site have been enriched by the deposit of centuries of
alluvial or virgin soil from the higher ground.
Communi- In respect to communications, the situation of the
cations.       .
site is most favourable because its entire periphery is accessible to lines of travel, either by land or water.  Not only is
it bordered for a considerable portion of its margin by the Marine
Drive, but on the remaining, landward side, it is reached by
projected streets, three of which at least must ultimately
carry car lines.   These streets impinge upon that side of
the property lying nearest to the centre of the building group.
Moreover, sine© the longitudinal axis of the site lies at nearly
right angles to these lines of approach, the distance to be
travelled to or from any point of the site is reduced to a minimum.   It will be observed also that the farm lands extend towards the lines of communication.
A desirable feature in respect to the movement of passengers and materials consists in the fact that there is no intersection of service and pleasure communications at grade level.
The former, which will be chiefly by water can be carried up the
I- 6. 6# bluff side under the Marine Drive, and the latter on the land
side, radiating as they do from the site , will parallel the
proposed Grey's Point Boulevard.
Berthing facilities suitable for vessels of small draft
can readily be provided at several points of the Western boundary of the property convenient both to the building group and
to the whole territory, including the farm.
Turning now from the building requirements and nature
of site, we would ask attention to the solution of the problem
thus ereated, as it is presented in the general design modified
as shown in Diagram No. I,  and described as follows :
Fundamental An underlying principle in the formation of an arch-
itectural design, be it that of a single structure or a group,
is that of frank recognition of the site : in other words, the
natural and unchangeable conditions of the ground as to its
topography, soil formation, aspect, prospect, and environment
must be fully recognized and conformed to in any determination
of the character and disposition of the buildings to be placed
upon it .
Another fundamental requirement is that the design
must have unity;   must constitute in all its parts a single
conception by bringing into a coherent relation both buildings,
grounds and communications, which thus are made to constitute
a single organism.
Moreover, this organism, complete and self-contained,
must relate itself to its surroundings, forming an integral part
of the whole landscape;   so that, although newly created for
a specific purpose, it will be wedded with pre-existing and
environing conditions.
These statements bring us to the most important single consideration of the whole project ; the central principle
on which the University plan should be composed.
Original In explaining this point, it is proper for the three
advisory members of the Commission to state parenthetically regarding the design on which they have been instructed to report
I- 8 S. Revised
that it was conceived on the right principle, and as laid before
the advisory members showed improvement on the original scheme.
The amended form advised by this report as the result of study
by the advisory members in consultation with the architects is
not a reversal but is the natural evolution of that plan, modified and extended to adapt it to recently changed conditions.
The organic structure of the plan is based on two
axes crossing at right angles on the higher levels of the site.
Upon these axes lie broad open spaces or malls bordered by
building groups , this portion of the scheme constituting its
nucleus.    This is fringed on the West by a broad area to be
devoted to Horticulture and on the East by a similar tract
whose proximity to the adjoining residential area and car lines
warrants its assignment to buildings and other constructive
features of the plan.   Adjoining at the South lies the farm,
while the limited area at the Northerly end provides the chief
portal of entrance,and space to complete the building groups.
At the crossing of the chief axes lies the seat of administration or control within which may be comprised such features as
library, convocation hall or museum.
From this point along the Greater Mall is ensured the
panoramic view of mountains and water which is the chief distinction of the site.    The Lesser Mill opens to the West,
giving a vista through the trees towards the Strait of Georgia,
while towards the East it affords communication with Tenth Avenue,
prospectively the chief line of approach to the University by
street car. I* 9. 9» General
Se condary
Grouped about the administration centre, and within
practicable working distance, are the several areas to which
should be assigned the more closely related educational departments ;   each given a juxtaposition^with its neighbors
according to their interrelations.
The remaining building groups, athletic and military
reservations, etc. are also allocated as required by their
respective relations.    The several assignments as well as
the location of certain features all as indicated in the accompanying diagram I, present some departures from the original
design both as to axes and position of buildings made necessary
for the following reasons ;-
Direction of Main Axis :    The .final topographical
survey of the property shews its main ridge to have a direction
bearing markedly further West of North than shewn in the preliminary survey, necessitating a change of direction in the major
axis of some fifteen degrees westward.   This involves no sacrifice of vista but on the contrary permits the axis to centre
upon one of the chief of the snow capped peaks of the panoramic
. Direction of Secondary Axis.   By this change the line
of Tenth Avenue would lose its intersection at right angles
with the Major Axis.    This is restored by breaking the axis
at a point between the central and easterly groups, thus carrying
the intersection to a point somewhat higher and further south
along the main axis, an undoubted advantage to the setting of
the central group of buildings.
I- 10.
10. Open The principal open spaces could we believe be reduced
with advantage to both use and appearance , to the dimensions
now shewn on the diagram, approximately as follows ;- Major
and Minor Malls from four hundred to two hundred fifty feet
and the "Eastern Boulevard" from three hundred to one hundred
seventy five feet.
Position of        The introduction into the problem of a farm to adjoin
Areas.     the present holdings on their South East Boundary necessitated
the removal of the Agricultural group to that point most convenient to both University and farm.   This position was originally occupied by the dormitory group.
Engineering. The desirability of convenient relations between Administration, Pure Science, Arts, Agriculture and Engineering suggested the removal of the last named to the region immediately South
or West of the Administration.
Dormitories.       To the positions thus vacated on the farther boundary of
the site the dormitories have been assigned.    Here, while the
quadrangles may open toward the South the buildings will have
an unobstructed frontage toward the best view to the North,
while their architectural form will well lend itself to the creation of good effect in the great Mall whose buildings progressively
increase in height until they culminate in the administration
Compact rp^g -fc^e re-distribution of those departments most depend-
Grouping. * *
ent upon one another permits their grouping in the most compact
way possible having due regard to necessary openness of space
and freedom of circulation.
I- 11. 11. Medical Adjoining the central group on the Southeast stands
the Medical Group, convenient to the science departments of
the University, its approaches for ambulance service open to
Tenth Avenue, and its hospital frontage open to the South and
the quiet of the farm.
Womens1 The Womens1 Dormitories and Union are slightly shifted
to the North but retain the original advantage of propinquity
to a future residence neighborhood.
Pedagogy. The Department of Pedagogy will find place in a region
convenient at once to its students and to day pupils from the
town attending its model school.
Athletic Both Athletic and Military divisions have gained in the
and Military
Divisions.   shift of position by reason of their greater nearness to direct
city communication. The change was to some extent dictated by
the need of open land near the agricultural buiiiings, and is
in part required to keep the gymnasium and athletic fields near
the dormitories.
Power Plant.        The Power Plant with its yards, University repair shops
etc. finds position near the armory, a site on the whole the
most advantageous from the points of view of economy of service,
dispersal of smoke and architectural appearance.
Theological        For the Theological Schools a tract is provided of ade-
quate area, in a position of comparative retirement and near a
future residential region.
Other modifications have been made in the original design in the matter of minor groups and thoroughfares, as indicated in the diagrams.
!• 12. 12, Reduction in        The modifications thus effected and the reductions in
areas.      area of open spaces within the building traet have resulted
in a material economy to the latter and a corresponding increase in space available for farming purposes, thus enabling
the University to restrict to two hundred acres the additional
land needed to complete its farm equipment.
Revised Allocation of Departments in the revised Plan.  This
in a general way is indicated in the foregoing description
of changes in location of building areas or tracts, but is
here summarized in order to show the distribution of parts
assigned to each tract.  Letters refer to the tracts as they
are marked in the accompanying diagram No. I.
Schedule.    Traot. Department.
A. Administration, comprising also Library or Museum
and Convocation Hall.
B.l.       Department of Agriculture.
B.2.       Farm Lands.
B. 3.      Horticultural Fields.
C. Pure Soiencesf Biology, Bacteriology, etc.)
D. Mining Engineering, Forestry and Geology.
E. Pure' Sciences ( Physics and Chemistry.)
F. Mechanical, Electrical and Civil Engineering.
G. Arts.
H.        Cognate Departments ( unassigned.)
I. Mens Dormitories.
J.        Mens Dormitories.
I- 13. 13# Schedule.
Medical Department and Hospital,
Womens Dormitories and Union.
Stadium and Field Sports.
Armory and Drill Field.
Power House, Shops and yards.
Gymnasium, Mens Union etc.
Theological Schools.
Faculty residences.
Future dormitories.
Two factors of uncertainty as to future building
requirements must be reckoned with :    one, that of growth
within existent or prospective departments:    the other,
that of the future creation of new lines of work not foreseen
at present.    The first of these is cared for by the possibilities of arrangement within the assigned grouping areas;
with regard to the second, we understand that it is feasible
to reclaim, at mode&ate expense, a possibly considerable tract
of land extending to the North and West from the present
foreshore of the University property.    Such land, while
not available for buildings, would obviously set free a proportion of the land now assigned for recreation purposes.
Either the land thus released of that at the West
I- 14.
14, now assigned to horticulture and cognate subjects would then
become available for the future departments above referred to,
which would thus be assured of a close relation to established
parts of the University organization.
I— 14.
Ideal conditions would indicate the use of local and
characteristic materials which, as wrought into buildings,
would be possessed of an indigenous character.
The chief of such materials will be that employed in
the construction and facing of the external walls of the buildings, and the native materials now most available are various
stones of a bluish-grey tone, the nearly white Haddington Island stone, and granite.    The use of the first two for the
entire wall surface of all buildings is open to the following
objections;   both are costly and the blue stones are of a
color undesirable for exclusive use in considerable quantities,
and unsuited for combination with other materials.   Even were
the cost of the Haddington Island stone not prohibitive, its
whiteness renders it less desirable, for the mass effect of a
great group of buildings in this situation, than a material of
lower eolor tone.
The granite, in combination with other materials of
suitable color may be considered as more available on the
score of cost.    We feel that in any event stone should
be regarded as the main material for the outer walls of the
University Buildings, and should, in fact, be employed exclusively for the walls, provided that suitable stone can be purchased at a reasonable figure.
It would be fortunate if there might be found a quarry
of stone suitable in color, texture, cost, and of quantity sufficient
I- 15. 15. to provide for the full needs of the future.
Brick and Only in the event of failure to obtain this stone
stone as
alternatives, should the University in our judgement adopt brick as the
prevailing material for outer walls with which there should
be combined Haddington Island or similar stone or light terra
cotta.    The briek should be carefully chosen for color and
texture and need not be of the more costly kind.  Under these
conditions the outer wall materials would probably cost from
25$ to 40$ ( according to the proportion of brick used ) less
than the sum expended on wall construction if the Haddington
Island stone were used exclusively.
Upon many structures briek could be used with but
little stone;   upon others a greater amount of the latter
would be desirable, while in structures of chief consequence
or commanding position a large or total use of stone may prove
necessary to right architectural effect.   In any event the
choice and distribution of materials as to color and texture
should be the subject of close and comprehensive study by the
Architects and be carried out under the fixed and consistent
programme to which reference is made below.
Style. The architectural style of the buildings should in
our judgement be that originally proposed in the competitive
design, which may be designated as " Modern Tudor•"  As a
phase of English Gothic architecture, and better than any period
of the Renaissance, does it express and perpetuate the traditions
of British scholastic life.
I- 16. 16, Its essential quality can be properly realized in the materials
advised.   It lends itself admirably to the needs, in this
design, for great simplicity and dignity of general treatment
with a variety of expression of purpose in individual parts,
ranging from the nearly domestic character of dormitories to
the monumental feeling suitable to the seat of administration.
Controlling The unity of effect toward which each step of develop-
ment should be directed will be possible only by adherence to a
controlling scheme of architectural style, materials and color.
This is as necessary as conformity to the essential lines of
the plan.    Within these broad bounds there may and must be
allowed freedom in treatment of individual units but this freedom should never be such as to disturb the general harmony of
the whole design.
Types of
Volume and
For its initial uses the University has an appropriation of which, in our opinion, #1,500,000. may properly
be assigned to buildings, exclusive of educational equipment
and furnishings.    Due provision must also be made for these
latter items and for necessary landscape work.
The departments to be developed with the sum stated,
while comprising a wide range of subjects of instruction and
including both administration and residence, can be accomodated
in three types of structure which may be named respectively
" academic", containing lecture rooms, offices, etc. ;
"scientific", providing laboratories, classrooms etc.; and
"residential" with dormitory and refectory accomodation.
A conservative estimate of capacities to be had
for the sum named should be based on a cube foot cost of
forty-five cents ,.(.*46$0 for the structure exclusive of furniture and educational equipment, but inclusive of mechanical
equipment.   The resultant total volume of three and a third
million cubic feet should provide a dormitory capacity of 250
students in buildings of one million cubic feet and in the
remaining buildings a total of at least ninety thousand square
feet of clear floor area in class rooms, laboratories, offices
The number and location of these buildings and the
grading, road making and planting necessary to them constitute
I- 18. 18. the initial building project.   These points we consider in
their order :
Number of Instructional requirements may preferably be met in
three structures.    Dormitories should be two in number, one
for men and a second to be used by women until their own group
is available.
Location of        Two considerations should influence the placing of these
buildings :    convenience and appearance.    The latter is
especially worthy of attention at this time, for it is desirable
from the very beginning to give an effect of co-ordination between parts.     Where there are very few buildings with which to
work, their form and relation become the more important. If this
is carefully considered, the requirements of convenience will be
met and a due regard for economy will result.
We advise that three buildings of the instructional type
be constructed at the points shown in Diagram II at points 1,2 and
3 and that the dormitories be placed at points 4 and 5.
Advantages.        This will place instruction and administration at their
permanent centre and within convenient relation to each other.
When the agricultural department begins to build it will from the
outset hold its final relation to the University system.  Each
subsequent step in the further building programme will extend the
plan without disturbing essential relations.   The dormitories
are at their normal and proper distance from the centre of scholastic activities and are suitably separated.
I- 19. 19« This arrangement of buildings will establish at once the
salient points in the chief feature of the general plan, - its
great Mall -  whose lines will be well established by the addition, of a simple planting scheme of trees and shrubs and the
construction of roads and paths.   This will give to the
region first occupied an appearance of unity and comffceteness,
of great importance in the new community life of the institution.
Increase area
of land
Importance of
For social
The allocation of the University buildings along the
Central ridge leaves a considerable area of land for the
various needs of service, as in the roads for recreation, as
in the stadium and playing fields, and for ornamental purposes
as in the lawns and shrubberies which give the immediate setting
to the University buildings.
The proportion, disposition and location of these
divisions is a matter of supreme importance, just as important
in fact as the grouping of the University buildings.  The Campus
as a whole has not only to provide for the immediate educational
and recreational needs of the students and graduates, but what
is more important, it has to link the University with the City.
Thus the students would stand in healthy rivalry with the athletic olubs of the City, and great crowds of sympathizers would,
as in all other Universities, attend the football and other
In like manner, in a democratic institution like the
University of British flolurabia, there is bound to be much
social intercourse between the University and the City of
Vancouver.    For whilst reserve and exclusiveness may
characterize the older Universities, the reverse holds good
in the modern seat of learning.    This fact has an important
bearing on the campus and its plan of subdivision, and needs
II- 1. 21. to be grasped in all its bearings.
On the practical side the Campus must approximate in its
lay-out to the public park and recreation ground, with this
For auto-   difference, however, that as the University attracts a much denser
mobile roads.
and more diversified crowd, including many automobilists, there
is special need for macadamized roads, while on the other hand
students and men of intellectual pursuit need spaces suited to
the retired temperament and vocation.   Interwoven with the
For Promen- publie and semi-public spaces there must therefore be other
"spaces apart?1* retreats where only the privileged may enter.
For retired
parts.   Ancient seats of learning have fostered this idea of private
grounds within the campus;  the modern University emphasizes
the place of'greeting" or promenade, yet cannot afford to neglect
the other.
For Botanical       Of equal importance is the recognition of the possibil-
and Horticultural    ities of the campus as a series of open air schools, fully
utilizing the botanical gardens, where practical and systematic
botany received its inspiration and impetus, and the gardens
devoted to studies in practical and theoretical horticulture,
Bee culture, Fruit culture, Arboriculture, practical forestry
and scientific research in many departments of nature study.
For The Campus of the University of British Columbia is
Agriculture.     ^dLdsL*
also toan agricultural establishment complete in every <d»par'tment ,
not only for study and research, but also for practical demon-
station in workshop, orchard and field.
Xx— 2. S2. As the natural counterpart to the more serious studies which
the University imposes, there must be a definite encouragement
of physical exercise.    This necessitates the setting apart of.
large areas, and their lay-out for special forms of recreation.
Correlation.       All these various needs must be correlated in such a manner
as to give the highest degree of efficiency at the lowest cost
Maintenance  for maintenance, with the least discordance with natural surround©
ings and with the greatest aid to the aggregate composition of
separate units into one connected whole.  This end must not be
gained at the cost of losing aspect for the horticultural depart-
ment.soil and aspect for the farm, or car line facilities for
the recreation grounds.
Internal and       All these controlling factors have to do with the internal
views.    arrangement of the campus.   The external effect is however
equally important, for the impressionproduced upon the visitor
as he approaches the University is the one impression which will
last longer than any other.    This consideration has suggested
an improvement to the approaches to which more detailed reference will later be made.
Site in A survey of the site in its relation to the surround-
relation to
surroundings, ing landscape, of the contours in relation to aspect, of the
position of boat landings and piers for barges, and of the roads
and avenues connecting the city with the site, together with the
position of the street car lines and termini, suggests that the
Stadium, Armory and drill ground, the hockey and tennis, and other
recreation grounds should, as already stated, be placed on the
East side of the site, thus gaining immediate access to the street
II- 3. 23. Importance
of soil and
of Transit
Influence of
car lines;  that the horticultural department should be to the
West where the ground' lies warm to the sun and is well sheltered
by the outer fringe of forest, and that the orchard and experimental fruit farm should lie between the horticultural and agricultural sections, and lastly it is suggested that the farm
lands should extend to the south where the soil is of good loamy
quality, and the location favourable to the handling of stock
and heavy farm produce without intercepting the drnamental drives,
walks and automobile roads or, by immediate contrast, spoiling
the formal furnished lay-out of lawns.    All these conditions
are amply met in the arrangement now proposed, the relative
positions of the parts of which are indicated on the diagrammatic
plan already referred to.
In the correlation of the several parts of the campus
there is this further and most important consideration that, in
so far as local conditions permit, the traffic, which at times will
be of considerable volume, whether pedestrian or automobile, slow
or fast, light or heavy, should be graded.  Hence certain appraach-
es to the University should provide for automobiles, the service roads for heavy slow farm traffic, and the walks and promenades for pedestrians;   and all should be designed to secure
convenience, directness and ease of gradient.  To gain this
directness all unnecessary curvature of roads and walks should
be avoided*
All these factors had already been studied by your architects, whose premiated designs show a good disposition of the
several sections.   By the introduction of the ground which it
II- 4. 24. Extent of
is now proposed to add for agricultural purposes, together with
the revision of the lay-out and orientation of the University
buildings, it has been possible to make more economical use of
the land.    In the opinion of your advisers this will very
materially enhance the aesthetic and orderly qualities of the
composition as a whole.   If all the factors are grasped it
ought to be possible by the ordered arrangement of buildings
and surroundings to express in the campus a perfect aggregation
of parts, which unconsciously, but nevertheless assuredly , will
influence the life of your University.   From this catalogue of
needs and opportunities, it will be seen that the planning of a
University Campus involves the consideration of all the principles
and conditions which obtain in the onerous task of designing a
The total area of the campus, with the additional two
hundred acres of farm land, the Marine Drive and sheltered slopes ,
cliffs and waterfront is approximately as follows ;-
The Campus ( including an additional
10 acres for drill ground)
Addition for Experimental Farm ( to be
asked for )
Additional land over and above area included in exchange in reservation for
Theological Colleges,
In Marine Drive,
Small triangular plot to be asked for
on North side of Marine Drive partly
in ravine and partly private property,
In bluff, forest fringe and shore line,
260 acres.
II— 5.
529 acres.
25. Subdivision
of land.
We advise that this area might roughly be subdivided and
dedicated to the various departments in the following manner and
proportion.    Modifications might of course from time to time
be found desirable , but the apportionment is sufficiently good
to illustrate and elucidate certain conclusions upon which you
may safely proceed.
1. Central ridge occupied by University
Buildings and quadrangles and Mall ;
2. Areas on the Eastern side of the campus  )
devoted to Armory drill Grand Stadium,
Hockey grounds and Womens* playing
field. )      30
3. Areas of the North Eastern corner of the
Campus allocated to Theological Colleges,     24
4. Area reserved for Hospital and Medical
School, , 12-§-
5. Areas on the South side lying between the
University Building and the outer fringe
of forest devoted to Horticultural and
experimental grounds, 30
6. Land for Orchard and Fruit Nursery, connect
ing Horticultural and Agricultural departments,
Poultry Farm, )   19
Areas in Boulevards Service Roads and walks,     23i
Lawns and ornamental shrubberies and plantations.
II* 6.
26. Acres,
Triangular plot cff land at the North end
of the Campus reserved for professors'
In forest fringe between Campus and Marine
Area in existing Marine Drive bluffs and
fringe of Natural Forest,
Community centre to South of Agricultural
Department Building, including 200 acres
for farm,
Poultry farm lying between Community centre
and the land reserved for Hospital,
Remaining area for Agricultural purposes,
Items 5, 6 and 13 properly belong to the Agricultural Department which by these additions is increased to 269 acres.
Providing        From this it will be seen that while two special areas
for other
Recreational are devoted to the drill ground, stadium, and other recreational
uses, there will be many other level spaces in the ornamental
grounds and in close proximity to the University Buildings which
could be used for Croquet, Tennis, bowls and other games, providing
suitable recreation for garden parties and receptions.
Relative cost     The proportionate cost of landscape work as included in the
of Landscape
work.   -  lay-out of grounds is generally little understood, and as it is
important that some relative liability under this heading should
be recognized from the first, we add for your guidance the following approximate calculations which do not include the cost of
terracing, balustrades, steps and other purely architectural adjunct^
II- 7. 27. Roughly it may be stated that in the case of grounds of
the extent and kind now proposed, including the necessary provision for roads, lawns, recreation grounds and plantations,
the cost will be found to be about one-fifth of the whole expenditure ;  innother words, out of every $100,000. expended
upon buildings, grounds and equipment, f20,000. is needed to
lay out and equip the grounds.  This proportion of the whole
cost is made up in the following manner*-
Clearing land and drainage for Horticultural
Formation of roads and walks,
Grading and formation of lawns,
Clearing and preparation of ground for
ornamental plantations and shrubberies,
Planting and maintenance of same for one
Per Cent.
Immediate cost     It is perhaps unfortunate, but nevertheless true, that
out of proportion with     in such a case as the present, where much of the building pro-
final oost.
gramme is necessarily deferred, the immediate cost of landscape work cannot be in ratio to the cost of building construction, for in some of its developments the landscape work
must be complete from the first.    For instance the service
roads must be made to connect the public roads with the buildings first erected, even though the intervening buildings, which
are to be omitted for the present, constitute more than one-half
of the completed composition.    Recreation grounds must also
II- 8. 28. Work to be
on work
carried out
width of
Roads &
be completely levelled and made useable, while it is generally
found advisable to form and plant at anearly stage the principal
shrubberies, plantations and shelter belts.   If, therefore,
expenditure must be curtailedm the necessary landscape plans
should be prepared at once in their completed form and subjected
to the process of elimination or postponement of every feature
which can be relegated to the future, and the omission of every
detail on which an immediate saving can be effected.
An examination of the proportionate cost of the several
.kinds of work required in the development of the ground, will
show that if the work which is actually to be carried out is to be
done with economy, two items must be closely checked, firstly,
the cost of road making, and secondly, the cost of grading.
Whilst appreciating the broad spacious effect produced by wide
roads, we may state that in our opinion the amount of Macadam laid
down is usually much wider than is really necessary and that sidewalks are frequently laid out in an extravagant manner.   Thus for
the main roadway or boulevard and farm roads, we think that nineteen feet of macadamized roadway ( or two units of traffic) is
quite sufficient, and that a width of three units, or sine feet
six inches along the main lines of transit and two units, or four
feet four inches, for the minor lines is usually sufficient for
sidewalks.    If the total width is as usually proportioned, the
balance can be laid down in grass and trees.   This method would
reduce the cost of road-making by fully 15 to 20 per cent.
II- 9.
29. 1/ > •"
Cost of
work at
Point Grey.
Cost of
approximate. #180,000.00 .
We would further observe that ample stone can be found
on the ground at Point Grey for all purposes of road construction , for the erection of such rough retaining and dividing
walls as may be required in the horticultural section, and for
foundations for garden structures.
By the re-spacing of the buildings and altered orientation of the two main axes, the possibilities for economical grading have been much improved, and we suggest that this work should
only be undertaken after the preparation and careful consideration
of re-grading plans, in relation to the floor levels of the buildings and surrounding land.   If this care is duly observed in
connection with the initial building programme , it ought to be
possible to construct the immediately necessary service walks
and roads in connection with same, also to lay out and level the
recreation grounds, construct all necessary boulevards, sidewalks
and walks connecting the several buildings, grade the ground,
trench and form and plant beds for shrubberies and forest trees,
for about one-half the proportionate percentage which we have
given as usual for work of this character.   In other words
the approximate amount now needed for the Campus proper would be
It is only right to state that these estimates
are baaed on rough calculations of areas and local prices. A more
detailed and acourate estimate could only be arrived at after the
preparation of detailed plans and sections and specifications.
The following considerations and conclusions respecting
the divisions of the Campus and the treatment accorded to its
II- 10.
30. . Main Entrance
Ravine to
be preserved.
various parts may be helpful.
First, as to the approaches to the University from
contiguous roads.   There are three main approaches, each
of which would have a distinct character, and give an enhanced value to the Campus by providing specially favourable
view points.   In addition there are several minor entrances
for service and direct access to the Campus.   The three main
approaches as now proposed are digressions from previous plans.
The first is the approach from the Marine Drive; where
it is proposed to make a diversion of the said drive so as to
bring it parallel with the contours and the buildings. Incidentally a feature would be made of the ravine, which should be
crossed by a stone bridge of solid but simple design, replacing
the existing wooden structure.   The fallen timber should be removed from the ravine and the water gathered into pools and
cascades , thus adding an incident of great natural charm. The
approach to the northerly buildings would be by a long curve laid
out to an even gradient suited to the contours, thus ensuring a
fine sweeping approach and perfect circulatory facilities for
vehicular traffic.   On the centre axis it is proposed to build
stone steps of ample proportions connecting the Great Mall with
the Marine Drive.     This area is most important as it>lends
itself to an exceedingly interesting landscape development combining lawn and shrubbery with the University buildings.
The second entrance connects the two main approaches
from the City on the East side with the main axis of the Campus,
and by its open effect suggests the possibility of shade trees
and central park-ways. -._',, _,
II* 11. 31, Parkway,
for roads
on site.
The third connects the main farm road with the University
Campus.   Here on the Southern side of the agricultural building, it is proposed that a model community centre should be
created for the economic and hygienic housing of the employees.
Such a centre would in itself be an object lesson to students
in agriculture.
We believe that it would be wise to begin at once to collect the stones lying on the ground for the purposes of road-
making, engaging a stone crusher for the topping material, where
a sufficient quantity of stones have been collected.  In constructing the roads it would be wise to hand-pitch the ballast,
as in the method of road construction adopted with such great
and economical success in Scotlarid.
As a preliminary to the laying out and planting of the
grounds, we advise the formation of a home imrsery ( preferably
a part to be devoted later to horticulture) and to collect on
the site large quantities of Gaultherla, Barberis, Cedars and
Pines, with any other serviceable native trees.   These in
quantity would be extremely useful for planting up rough banks
or slopes or for undergrowths.
In addition to native trees and shrubs, it would be wise
to purchase now, and plant in the nursery for future use such
other shrubs as are,likely to be needed.
The Horticultural Grounds and Orchard should be laid out
at an early date, thus ensuring that the fruit and other trees
and bushes will be in a serviceable stage of growth when the
agricultural and horticultural schools are ready to start
II- 12.
32. In respeot to the forest reserves along the Westerly
margin of the site and constituting an invaluable fringe of
Forest    forest both "for shade and ornament, we desire to say that the
further removal of any part to create vistas, or to provide
, other features, should only be proceeded with after considerable study, and with due regard to the age and quality of the
trees and undergrowth.
Restrictions      We would suggest that in order to secure and preserve
on surrounding property, a desirable environment for the University, the adjoining land
should only be sold subject to such restrictions as will prevent the ereetion or construction of any building or the formation of any area whose purpose, arrangement or use is not in
keeping with the general scheme.
When considering the design for an important group of
buildings of the kind now reported upon, it must be remembered
that the cost of maintenance, the health and convenience in
working, and the efficiency of every department are largely
dependent on the manner in which the services for Heat, Light,
Power, Sanitation and Transport are provided for,   The first
cost of the necessary equipment for such services forms a very
considerable proportion ( 15$ to 20$) of the total expense of
construction, and the operating costs are necessarily of such
magnitude, that careful study, scientific design, and the exercise of an experienced judgement are all required on the part of
the engineers who will be responsible for the design of the
service features of your completed institution.
without going into such detail as to trench on the province of your Architects and their future technical advisers, we
feel that it will be proper for us to indicate briefly the leading points which should be borne in mind in selecting and
designing your service plant.  The skill and judgement of your
engineer must be shown in assigning proper weight to, and holding
evenly the balance between, certain factors, upon which his
success or failure will depend.  These are :-
(a) Satisfactory service -   as demonstrated by the
comfort, safety and health of the persons using the buildings,
and by the continuous availability of the service whenever called
for. Ill- 1. 34. Economy
in use.
to Design,
Economy in
Heating &
Power Plant.
Present and
(b) Low cost for maintenance, labour and superintendence,
and low consumption of power, fuel and supplies.  This is almost of equal importance from the administrative standpoint, involving low ^operating cost for the services rendered.
(o) Proper subordination of deiign of service plants to
the architects" constructive and aesthetic requirements. It
is often difficult to fulfil this condition, without some
sacrifice either of economy in operation or even of satisfactory service, and it is in connection with this point that
the ingenuity of the design is most frequently required. Archi*
tectural requirements, when improperly met, often lead to a
compromise or even to an arrangement which may affect prejudicially the conditions as to
(d) Low first cost of plant, or economy in construction and installation.
Finally we note the desirability of
(e) Ease and convenience in operation, so as to lessen
the demands upon the operating staff.
With this introduction, we proceed to discuss your
chief service requirements, in the light of the information
which we have been able to obtain, with special reference to
the supply of Heat,- Light and iPower and the needs as regards
Water Supply, Fire Protection, Sanitation and the Transportation
of Passengers and Freight.
In view of the climatic conditions, the conformation
of the site and the arrangement of the buildings, we are of
ultimate needs.
opinion that the heating and power plant should ultimately be
III- 2.
3 5. placed toward the Eastern side of the completed building group,
and as near as possible to the Engineering buildings, the
Hospital group and other points of maximum demand for steam,
heat and current.     This arrangement avoids any long or
uneconomical runs of piping, and the power plant will be on the
lee side of the site, in a convenient position for service.
Present The distance between the various buildings to be
first constructed and the site assigned for the Permanent
Power House are such, that if this site were used during the
first few years of the University1s operation, the transmission
losses- would be a source of unnecessary expense.   We therefore
recommend that a service boiler plant should for present use
be provided, in connection with one of the first buildings to be
constructed, of sufficient capacity for heating these buildings,
and capable also of extension so as to deal with further buildings up to ( say) four million cubic feet.    As far as possible
this original power equipment would be designed so as to form
part of, and occupy space destined for, the apparatus of the
Department of Mechanical Engineering ;   so as to be in fact
the nucleus of the experimental boiler paant of the fuel testing laboratory or laboratory of steam engineering.  Whenever
the development of the University shall have reached a suitable
point , the construction of the permanent or ultimate Power
Plant would be proceeded with, the original plant reverting to
laboratory use.
Ill- 3. 36. Heat Distribution
Tunnels &
We recommend that the University Buildings should be laid
out for ultimate connection to a system of heat distribution
by means of hot witter, heated by steam in the Power House, and
circulated throughout the system by means of steam turbine
driven, or motor driven pumps.    In the comparatively mild
climate of the British Columbia Coast Region, where frozen
radiators are not common, this system is specially applicable,
in view of its undoubted economy when worked below its full
capacity in mild weather, and on acoount of the facility with
which the temperature of all the buildings connected can be
regulated from the central station by varying the water temperature in the flow mains.
Steam for cooking, sterilizing and laboratory purposes
will naturally be needed in certain buildings and would be
transmitted from the central Boiler Plant.
The heating pipe lines to and from the first buildings
and connecting these with the boiler plant now to be installed,
must evidently be laid out so as to form eventually an integral
portion of the larger system.   As far as possible, the pipe
lines of the completed system would be carried through the base«
ments of buildings so as to lessen the costly construction of
pipe-tunnels and conduits.    The first dormitories to be
built must of necessity be located at such a distance from the
original heating plant that until such connecting buildings
exist, it will probably be found economical to heat the dormitories by their own individual hot water plants, arranged, however, for connection to the general scheme at a later date.
Ill- 4. 37. (0)
Boiler The boilers to be presently installed being intended
Equipment &
Fuel.    for use in connection with engineering instruction as well as
for service purposes, should not be in too large units - they
must be suitable for generating high pressure steam ( say 150
lbs. per sq. inch) so that they can be used for laboratory work,
and the furnaces must be designed for the smokeless combustion
of local coals.   One boiler at least might with advantage be
. fitted for oil fuel for instructional use.
Fuel. It is in our opinion not advisable to depend entirely
on either coal or oil.    With the prices at present quoted in
Vancouver and in a comparatively small boiler plant where the
use of oil fuel can only lead to a slight saving in labour, there
appears to be but little economic advantage in the use of oil
for steam generation as compared with coal.   We think therefore
that at this stage provision need only be made for the use of
oil fuel in boilers for demonstration purposes.
(D) The question arises as to whether electric current for
Electric and
Power     service and laboratory purposes should be purchased or gener-
ated by the University's own plant.  The decision as to this
point depends on three factors (a) the cost of the current as
furnished by the power company, (b) the cost at which it can be
generated by a small Isolated plant, allowing for the possible
utilization of exhaust steam for heating, and (c) the advantage
of using to a oertain extent the engines, generators and instruments of the service plant for instructional purposes in the ,
Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, pending the
III- 5. 38. Cost of
Purchase of
installation of their complete laboratories and equipment.
Until the first buildings are actually designed, it
is impossible to make a close estimate of the cost of generating current in an isolated plant serving them. From experience
with installations of similar size to that contemplated, but
working under more severe climatic conditions, we believe that
say &!/ to 4gf per K. W. hour would be near the mark, and it
would be advisable to give careful consideration to any offer
to supply current at a figure below 3j$   per K. W. hour (
measured on the consumer's side of the transformers.
We recommend that the designs for the first group of
buildings to be erected, provide for a power station large
enough to contain not only the necessary boiler and heater
equipment as suggested above, but also space sufficient for
the engines and generators which would be needed if the
University generates ita own current.
In view of the comparatively moderate price of fuel
©11 on the coast, the mild climate and consequent small
heating load, and the high1fuel economy of internal combustion
engines of the Diesel type, we would advise that an investigation should be made as to the desirability and possibility of
using fuel oil in engines of this type for at least a portion
of the electric load.
Negotiations should be opened with the electric supply
companies on the basis of the following alternatives; (a)
purchasing all current, (b) purchasing current during summer
only and (c) purchasing current for night or partial use and
standby purposes,
The most economical alternative can only
IIX* 6. 29 # (E)
Water supply
and Fire
be decided upon definitely after the first group of buildings
has been designed, and when full information as to their probable
demand and load factor can be obtained.
The arrangements for the distribution of electric
current for light and power, if current is purchased, will
probably involve the provision by the supply company of a transformer station outside the University grounds, stepping down
from 11,000 to 2,200 volts.   This station would be supplied
by overhead lines, and from it the 2,200 volt lines would be
led underground to the various transformer substations at points
of demand, whence 3 phase current for power and single phase
or three phase current for lighting would be distributed.
For experimental or other work needing direct current,, motor
generators, with or without storage batteries, would be needed.
The area covered by the University scheme in its ultimate development is so great that a low voltage direct current
supply would probably be uneconomical to instal.   A power plant
of this type if put in at present could supply the first few
buildings, but changes in equipment would of course, be required
at a later date when the area of supply is extended.
It is perhaps unnecessary to add that all electric
cables within the grounds, including telephone, time service
and other secondary-lines, should be underground,
We understand that as soon as instructions are received from the Board, the Municipality of Point Grey is prepared to put in a six-inch water main along Tenth Avenue, which
III- 7. 40. will thus be available during the construction of the first
University buildings.   When these are complete, additional
pipes will have to be laid so as -togive duplicate and continuous
Pressures The water pressure available on the site will be only
Reserve Tank.
about 40 lbs. per sq. inch, but this will carry the supply to
practically all parts of the buildings except towers over about
70 feet high.    Such a pressure is however, quite insufficient
for fire protection purposes, and we recommend the installation
of a complete and separate system of fire mains throughout the
grounds and buildings, with fire pumps in duplicate in the Power
House.   Provision should also be made for a large reserve tank
in connection with the fire pump suctions.
We are informed that a fair supply of water could
probably be obtained by pumping from deep wells on the site,
should this be found advisable.
Immediate If it is intended to commence actual construction
work in the spring of 1914, steps ought to be taken at once preparing for the installation of the proposed water mains.
(G) The Greater Vancouver Sewage Scheme will probably
include eventually an intercepting sewer following the North
shore of the Point Grey peninsula and flowing East to the main
system.    The levels and arrangement of all sewers on the
University property should be such that connection ( with gravity
flow) can ultimately be made to this intercepting sewer if required.
Ill- 8. 41. Experiment
In the meantime the sewage ( treated by settlement or otherwise so as to remove the solids) should be discharged to the sea
at a point below low water mark on the west shore, this point
being chosen with reference to tidal flow in such a position as to
cause the least possible local contamination.
The design will of course include a separate storm water
It may be added, that if a sewage treatment plant is installed to serve the University buildings, attention might well
be given to the possibility of so arranging it as to be available for experimental and research work.   The problem of successfully treating sewage is one which presents many aspects , due to
the fact that such treatment must beisuited in every case to the
quality and composition'of the material dealt with, and in the variec
industrial development of a country like British Columbia, where
special kinds of mining and manufacturing wastes will be discharged into potable waters in ever increasing volume, an experiment station of this kind would be likely to prove of great value
to the Province.   By its aid the effect of special local conditions could most readily be investigated, and the results would be
highly beneficial to the health of the community.
In view of the distance from the City to Point Grey, it
is necessary to consider carefully the problems of transportation,
which involve :
(a) Movement of workmen and materials during construction.
(b) Movement of passengers, materials, supplies and fuel
needed for the operation of the institution.
Ill- 9. 42. For these purposes we have available (l) the existing
and future lines of the B. C. Electric Railway Company, (2)
steam wggon or motor truck haulage and (3) water transport
by scows and tugs or motor launches.
(I) The first method necessitates the construction to be-
By Street
Railway.     gin with of at least two miles of car line connecting with
existing lines of the B.C. Electric Railway Company at Tenth
Avenue and Sasamat Streets.   This line would include a
considerable length of such steep grade that only one loaded
freight car could be handled at a time, and the alternative
route via Fourth Avenue requires the bridging of a ravine.
The expense ofdealing with large quantities of material in this
manner will probably be considerable, first because of the length
and character of the new line to be built, and secondly, because
existing curves render it impossible to take standardffeight cars
on to the site..   Freight arriving by rail must therefore be
transshipped to cars of the B. C. Electric Railway Company in
any case.   To haul freight originating in Vancouver near lines
of the Company would probably cost in the neighborhood of #1.00
per ton, exclusive of cost of loading, unloading or switching.
As regards Passenger Traffic, the University will be mainly
dependent on the lines of the B. 0. Electric Railway Company,
and the Company should be approached at once, in order that
ample provision may be made for workmen during the construction
period which we understand will commence next spring.
As soon as the first buildings are in service, and in
the future, the passenger requirements will become more onerous.
HI- 10. 43. At certain times large crowds may have to be handled, and we are
of opinion that three lines for street cars should eventually
be brought to the Eastern boundary of the site.   The first
line to be constructed would naturally be that on Tenth Avenue,
and this should be followed as need arises by the Fourth Avenue
line and at a later date by a third line along one of the
Southern streets near South Boulevard.   A spur for construction work could be carried on to the site from the first line
to be built.
(2) Steam wagon or motor truck haulage would naturally
By motor
vehicle.    be utilized in connection with road making and construction work,
and we also recommend its use in handling coal and supplies
in conjunction withwwter transport.   Contracts for steam
wagon haulage can now be let at from 25 to 35$f per ton mile,
depending on the length of journey and time spent in loading
and unloading, and we believe that the University itself will
ultimately be able to do this work, owning its own steam
wagons, at a still lower figure.
(3) The problem of water transport for freight to and
By water.
from the buildings has been studied.    We have at Point Grey
a steep bluff running down to a water area where the water
deepens gradually to about ten feet at a distance of 200 or 300
feet from low water mark.    The rise of tide is from 11 to
13 feet, and there appears to be no difficulty in constructing
a jetty or wharf alongside of which scows or barges carrying
200 tons or more could be safely berthed.
Ill- 11. ; 44. From this jetty we suggest that an inclined railway should be built, |
the cars of which would dump into a bin arranged to spout coal,
broken stone, or similar material, direct into a wagon on the level
of the Marine Drive.    A somewhat similar method has already
been adopted for dealing with the material used in the construction
of the Marine Drive, and its working proved to be economical, the
operating cost being given us as about lOjf per ton from scow to     |
wagon.    We propose the construction of this elevator at or near
a gully about one thousand feet south of the extreme west point of
the University property, and it would be used not only during
construction but also for handling the coal and other supplies
needed when the University is in operation.   The distance from
the top of the elevator to the ultimate position of the heating
plant will be about 3,500 feet, and to the initial boiler plant
about 2,000 feet.
In order to deal with such material as cannot conveniently
be loaded in an elevator car or bucket, and to provide for bringing
live stock, farm supplies, and possibly passengers, by water, we
think that a road should be constructed leading up from a second
wharf to the Marine Drive at an easy gradient suited for both heavy
and light traffic.    Such a road can be most cheaply built on a
comparatively straight portion of the bluff lying to the Southward of the University Boundary where the confirmation is practically a side hill.    The construction of this road ( lying outside
the University property) would naturally be undertaken by the
III- 12. ^ 45. i
Provincial Government, and the wharf to which it would lead
would, we presume, be within the sphere of the Dominion Government, especially as such a road and public wharf would be available
not only for the use of the University but also for the residents
along the South side of the Point Grey Peninsula.
(Sgd.)    Warren P. Laird.
(Sgd.)    Thomas H. Mawson.
(Sgd.)    R. J. Durley.
(Sgd.)    G. L. Thornton Sharp.
(Sgd.)    Charles J. Thompson.
November 10th. 1913.
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