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The Ubyssey Oct 31, 2003

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THIt ISSUE:
NEWS:
Pro-choice, not pro-rules
7 •**;•/?-/RO
A'.
Protesters still rail against GAP. Page 3-
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CULTURE:
Undead at the PNE.
A whole new Fright Night. Page 8.
SPORTS:
Travel diaries
Two UBC athletes share their on-the-road
experiences. Page 7.
EDITORIAL:
Halloween!
A httle costume advice. Page 67
„      ,a a'H   '*«"a^   »       "    L    ' NEWS
CLASSIFIEDS
CHRISTMAS FROM AROUND THE
WORLD TRADE SHOW: vendors,
performers or volunteers are needed .
Tel: (604) 421.3898
INTRODUCTION TO ZEN
WORKSHOP
November 8, 2pm-4pra, Kitsilano
Info: info<3»w\vzc.org or 604-737-2798
INTERESTED IN BEING
PUBLISHED? Submit your essays to the
history journal -The Atlas. Drop them
off in the box in the History office -
Buch. Tower 12th floor. Questions? E-
mail adaseditor@yalloo.com
HEY BANDS/DJS! Want a gig? UBC
Medical Ball needs a band/dj: oldies of
20s-50's +/- "top 40". Saturday, March    .
J 3 & Westin Bayshore. Demo tapes/eds
to UBC Medical Ball tin. 317 IRC
the ubyssey magaiine
PAGE FRIDAY
Friday, October 31,2003
erviees
THE BIKE KITCHEN is your campus
bike shop! (In the SUB loading bay) Call
82-Speed.
FREE FORUMS, singles events, chat
room www.visitvancouver.bc.ca .
.-"Vancouver's community website".
firninrnmni
EXPERIENCED ENGLISH TUTOR
& PROOFREADER/EDITOR
Ph. D Student with 6 yrs teaching
experience. Call Anna @ 604-821-0510
STUCK ON A TOUGH ESSAY?
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will help you create powerful written and
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writing, speeches, vocabulary. Email
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TEACH ENGLISH OVERSEAS! Jobs
$$ Guaranteed-Gieat Pay. TESOL
Certified 5 days in-class (Oct. 15-19), online or by correspondence. FREE
Information Seminar, every Tuesday @
7pm. #216, 1755 West Broadway (@
Burrard). FREE Infopack 1-888-270-
2941 orcontactglobaltesol.com
WANTED-. JOURNALISTICALLY
TALENTED STUDENT to assist with
promotion for large clinical practice.
Duties include:  Publicity; press releases;'
promoting lectures and media coverage;
preparing Drochures, newsletters and
other publicity materials. Part-time     ^
flexible hours as needed. Fax resume and
writing samples (604) 684-7659.
TUTOR REQUIRED, looking foe a.
male tutor for conversational French.
John @ (604) 732-5020
JOIN US! IN SEARCH OF THE
PERFECT STREAM: The Canadian
Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS)
invites you to join us at the Coast Plaza
Hotel on Thursday October 30th, 2003
to listen to award winning journalist and
author Ed Struzik speak about his V<
century of experience of paddling various
rivers in Canada's arctic region. Contact
Sophia Middleton at info@cpawsbc.org
or oy phone at (604) 685-7445 for event
information. Be sure to also check us out
on the web at http;//www.cpawsbc.(
.isceiianeous
www.thedottedeye.com
To place an Ad or Classified,
call 822-1654 or visit
SUB Rpom 23 (Basement).
Correction:
In "They've got PhDs too, you know" in the Oct. 28 issue of the
: Ubyssey, information regarding past salary talks is credited to Director of
Media Relations Scott Macrae. That information came from Faculty
; Association President Richard Anstee.
UPCOMING FILMS
All screenings @ Norm Theatre, SUB
Admission: $3 and Membership: $20
Film Society Hotline: (604)822-3697
http://www.ams.ubc.ca/clubs/filmsoc
Fri. Oct 31 - Sun. Nov 2
7:00PM - Spy Kids 3D: Game Over
9:30PM - Johnny English
Wed. Nov 5 - Thurs. Nov 6
7:00PM - M*A*S*H
9:30PM - Full Metal Jacket
Fri. Nov 7 ~ Sun. Nov 9
7:00PM - S.WAT.
9:30PM - Tomb Raider 2
Come to
SUB Room 23
(in the basement
behind the arcade)
to receive a
COMPLIMENTARY
DOUBLE PASS to a
preview screening of:
REVOLUTIONS
showing-
Monday,
November 3, 2003
at 7:00pm,
at Capitol 6.
UBYSSEY
Giveaway
-   Preview screening.
ITiTT3
CLASSIFIEDS
STUDENTS!
Looking for a
roommate?
Got something
to sell?
Or just have an
announcement to
make?
If you are a student,
you can place
classifieds for FREE!
For more information, visit
Room 23 in the SUB
(nasementl or call 822-1654.
■DVD ZONE;
* 2138 WESTERN PARKWAY VANCOUVER J
(on Campus, beside Bank of Montreal)
Large Selection of
DVD, VHS & GAMES
for your enjoyment!
Reservations 604-221-9355
Want to
debate the
meaning of
journalism?
And then be a
journalist?
Come to news
meetings!
i:oo on Tuesdays
SUBrm24
the Ubyssey
newsies since 1918
WHO'S RIGHT? Journalists from the front lines consider the merits of the profession. Melissa rohde photo
Fact or opinion?
Experts debate the role of the media
by Sara Grosse
NEWSWRlTER
The integrity and objectivity of
mainstream news organisations
was called into question during a
debate between two media experts
earlier this week.
There is a conflict between journalism and patriotism which journalists showed while covering the
Afghanistan and Iraq wars, panal-
ists said Monday.
"We have this welter of opinion
of masqueraded information and
I'm afraid that what it's done is that
it has infected the so-called mainstream news organisations/ said
Jeffrey Dvorkin, Ombudsman for
National Public Radio in
Washington, DC, to a large crowd
gathered at UBC's Rqbson Square
campus downtown.
A change in the way new3 operated in the 1990s resulted in
accountability to shareholders
rather than listeners, and fact-based
reporting was replaced by opinion-
based reporting, said Dvorkin.
"I think we have to get back to the
point where we are able to ask tough
but civil questions and to do it for the
benefit of our listeners," he said. "I
think that's the value of what public
radio does and the value of journalism in America and Canada today if
only we are able to recognise it"
Dvorkin also saw a need to educate media audiences.
"I think we are at a difficult place
right now where often our audiences are confused as to what is the
difference between opinion- and
fact-based reporting," he said.      . ~
Dvorkin called on reporters to
present information that allows the
audience to form their own
opinions.
'We don't serve shareholders,
we don't serve the stock exchange,
we don't serve our political masters
but we serve our listeners."
But fact-based reporting is not
sufficient for good journalism, said
panel member Arthur Kent, an
Emmy award-winning documentary
producer,     who     covered     the
Afghanistan and Gulf wars for
Maclean's Magazine.
Instead, he called for a more critical approach, suggesting that just
reporting the facts can result in
biased reporting if what is being
reported is not challenged.
'As a journalist, you stand there
at their mic stand and allow the
president of the United States and
his spokesmen to have all the airtime and say what they want to say,"
he said. "You are propagating their
opinion."
Kent also took issue with US
media coverage of the war in Iraq,
saying it was one-sided at times and
was not as critical as coverage by
British and Arab stations.
"There was too much emphasis
on pyrotechnics, rather than the politics of the war," he said.
Editorial stances interfering with
reporting are also problematic
for Kent.
'Personally I think this war has
marked a new and dangerous low,"
he said. 'At no time since I first
started pounding a typewriter in
1973 have I seen the world's big
broadcasters in the history of journalism stoop so low editorially to
reinforce the prejudices of their
viewers."
Some audience members were
also critical of journalism's role during the question period.
'I don't beUeve journalism is
ever objective or should it be.
Fundamentally, journalism serves
the media and I don't think it could
be very different,' said one audience member.
But others thought the debate
encouraged audiences to reflect on
the impact journalism has on
society.
"I thought Arthur Kent was
inspiring in the sense that he
encourages reporters to use the
facts to uncover stories and that
opinion has its own place," said
Kathleen Haley, a first-year UBC
journalism student. "By uncovering
facts and by strong reporting you
can really do journalism that makes
a difference.' ♦
HALLOWEEN WEEKEND
Critical Mass Halloween bike ride, Oct. 31 at 4:30pm.
Meet fellow costumed cyclists in front ofthe Goddess of Democracy (in front
ofthe SUB), then head downtown to join up with the rest ofthe Critical Mass
gang at the Vancouver Art Galley at 5:30pm, with a crazee velo salute to sustainability to follow. Check out the UBC Bike Kitchen foe more info.
AMS Halloween Food Drive, Oct. 31 at 4pm
Get out in your Halloween get-up a Uttle earlier this year and come canvas the
Kitsilano/Point Grey neighbourhoods for non-perishable goods for charity.
Cars, trucks and volunteer drivers appreciated. Barbies and Rambos too. Meet
at SUB Room 216. For more information, see the AMS website. ♦ PAGE FRIDAY
Friday, October 31,2003
the ubys$ey magaiine
NEWS
3
Pro-choice group skirts GAP rule
University regulation results
in 'individual' protest
by Megan Thomas
NEWS EDITOR
A pro-choice student group that normally protests a controversial anti-
abortion display featuring graphic
close-ups of aborted fetuses changed
tactics this year to get around a university regulation.
Instead, Students for Choice rallied around the display in front of
the Goddess of Democracy yesterday as a group of 'individuals', to
bypass a rule that forces group
demonstrations 50 feet from the
Genocide Awareness Project (GAP)
display.
They circled in front of the display chanting 'My body is not your
commodity' through a bullhorn and
waved colourful pro-choice signs,
while a handful of members of a
pro-life group mingled and handed
out flyers.
"We are not here as Students for
Choice,* said Lesley Hoyles from
Students for Choice, as members of
the protest circled within inches of
the GAP display. "We are here as private individuals for choice."
The change in tactics came when
Students for Choice, an Alma Mater
Society (AMS) club, reaUsed that
booking space for their usual pro-
choice counter-display within 50
feet of GAP was not allowed.
That display, featuring white banners that obstruct the graphic
images, was pulled because of the
rule implemented after students
tore down a GAP display in
November 1999.
That incident resulted in a law
suit where the AMS won the right to
bar GAP from setting up in the SUB.
The club appealed to the UBC VP
Students' office to have the distance
reduced but was notified on Monday
that the 50-fopt buffer zone would
apply, said Hoyles. The club- then
decided to cancel their booking with
the university, she added.
Hoyles said there was no
Students for Choice presence
because the 50-foot rula prohibits
them   from   carrying   out   their
• demonstration effectively.
"It doesn't allow us to have a
. good enough presence for people to
really be able to see that there is a
pro-choice presence there," said
Hoyles.
The 50-foot rule still applies,
whether the protesters are 'individuals' or not, said Michelle Aucoin, a
spokesperson for the VP Students
office.
"It is respecting our general student population who may wish to
IS ANYBODY RIGHT? The abortion debate continued at UBC yesterday as a Lifeline member and a
student exchange views in the middle of a protest against the GAP display, michelle mayne photo
actually talk to some representatives
from both, groups," said Aucoin.
"That really wasn't honoured today.
It is quite disappointing that the
incidents happened today."
But violence has never occurred
when Students for Choice has
attended a GAP display, said Hoyles.
"It gives people a more productive way of dealing with anger and
frustration at the display/ she said.
"They can come hold a sign, they can
be surrounded by other people who
are pro-choice."
Previous pro-choice displays set
up parallel to GAP were not booked
through the university and were also
in contravention of the 50-foot rule,
said Aucoin. It was when Students
for Choice booked the space through
proper procedure that they were
informed of the regulation, she said.
Aucoin could not comment on
whether the university will take
action in response to the impromptu protest.
"We need to take a Uttle step back
from the incidents of today and
review the kind of communication
we have had and determine what
the next steps are,' she said.
Denise Schmidt, president of
Lifeline, the AMS club that brings
GAP to campus, respected Students
for Choice's right to protest
"We are out here with our displays. They have a right to be out
here protesting us as well,' said
Denise Schmidt. "It makes it more
difficult sometimes to engage
in conversation with students on
campus.' ♦
UBC AGM calls for global
citizenship in students
by Megan Thomas
NEWS EDITOR
Under the glaring Ughts of a posh downtown lecture hall, the most influential
players of UBC gathered Tuesday to give
the public a progress report and to convey a vision for the future of the largest
university in BC.
'How well is the University of British
Columbia meeting the challenge of this
precarious age?' President Martha Piper
asked a well-dressed, standing room
only crowd at the Robson Square
campus.
The meeting, webcast for the second
time, revolved around the need to create
global citizens in UBC students.
'UBC is "not an isolated institution
producing researching graduates in a
social and ethical vacuum,' said Piper,
the first speaker in the lineup. "For UBC
to succeed we truly must meet the challenge of our age. Our graduates must
bring forth a true sense of citizenship.
They must be global citizens.'
Terry Sumner, UBC VP
Administration and Finance, spoke
about UBC's financial commitment to
society.
"Here at UBC we beUeve we are setting an example of corporate responsibility and citizenship,' he said. "We walk
the talk regarding our commitment to
global citizenship."
He highlighted what he called
"triple bottom line reporting": UBC's
success financiaUy, socially and
environmentally.
Last year UBC's endowment a fund
that is used for research and academic
support across faculties, totalled $571
million.
The university posted a $3.7 milUon
unrestricted operating surplus, has capi
tal assets, including buildings and property value, that now total just under $ 1
bilUon, while the university's overall revenue reached $1.1 billion this year.
To close the gathering, Alexandre
Trudeau, son of former Prime Minister
Pierre Trudeau, gave a more personal
address on the importance of global
knowledge, drawing on his experiences
around the world as a documentary
filmmaker.
• "The challenge to understanding
each other as humans is not getting easier," said Trudeau. "The humanism that
should be essential tp our actions is
always in threat and education for me is
the key to global citizenship."
Audience member Susan Einarsson
asked the speakers how the university
would avoid becoming 'eUtist' amid rising tuition and admission standards.
"The debate that we are currently
having is what is the right mix of pubUc
support versus individual support,'
Piper responded, adding that she is
proud ofthe board's commitment to not
turn away qualified domestic students
for financial reasons.
Ginder Chalmers, a board member
for the Vancouver Asian Heritage
Society, attended the meeting because
of its global theme but said no stunning
revelations came out of the meeting.
"What I heard was just what you
expected to hear at an AGM,' she said,
adding she would have liked to see more
attention for pressing student issues
like recent tuition hikes.
Another audience member was
thrilled with the quality of the speeches.
"They were winners, all five. And I
am a university graduate from a very
long time ago so I have heard a lot of
these speeches,' said Clare Hucal, a
University of Manitoba alumna. ♦
Main garden makeover
Library garden plans get
examined by expert
by Michael Cook and Jonathan Woodward
NEWS WRITER AND NEWS EDITOR
As Main Library is transformed into the modern
Irving K Barber Learning Centre, the gardens in
front will be transformed to resemble the past
Plans are in the works to alter the garden,
remove trees, and reshape the land. This is
intended to improve the view of the Learning
Centre and make the garden into the more formal
space envisioned when Main Library was constructed in the early part of this century.
"There it is. [The garden] is a big hole in the
ground/ said Campus and Community Planning
Managing Director Fred Pritchard. "It's hard to
get to, and it's pretty much unusable most of the
year if it's raining or wet."
The garden has strayed from its original
design because it was incrementally replaced
with denser, more maze-like forests, he said.
"What we see there today is a far cry from what
the original concept was.
"We're looking at reestablishing some of the
original intent of the library garden that had
some of the traditional aspects related to the
character ofthe original building," he said.
But Professor John Worrall of Forestry
Sciences disagrees with the university's plans for
the garden.
Too many trees are being removed, he said,
pointing to the English Oaks along East Mall, a
cedar hedgerow on the south side of Main Library
and the potential removal of two large Cypress
trees at the entrance to Main Library—trees lit
annually "with Christmas lights.
"In a civilised society, one builds around trees,
not through them/ he said. "I hardly dare leave
my office these days to go out on campus and see
some other atrocity.'
Patrick Mclsaac, UBC's landscape architect
has been commissioned to engage the public with
consultation as well as catalogue each tree for its
sentimental and heritage value.
The trees should not be removed from the heritage core of the campus lightly, he said.
"Trees have a value on the community level,
and that can be pretty strong. Everybody in BC
has a stake in it'
Mclsaac will do a redesign of the area based
on the results of his information-gathering
process.
"We should have a pretty good case for retaining most of these trees. I just think it's the right
thing to do/ he said.
But it is clear that certain trees in the area will
be slated for removal, he said.
Final plans regarding the landscape around
the new Learning Centre will be made public
later this term. ♦
HAVE YOU PATTED YOUR TREE TODAY?
Patrick Mclsaac has. Melissa rohdes photo FEATURE
the ubyisey magaiine
'AGE FRIDAYl
'Friday, October 31,2003'
the ubyssef magaiine
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THEUBYSSEY
Contest open only to UBC students
in good standing.
are people so
They're supposed to be funny.
son 5
of clowns?
(""*" ome on, let's all admit it We have all said
J something mean about clowns. Either it
was something about their big feet and their
weird red noses, or maybe their peculiar
outfits.
Everyone.seems to have a reason to hate
or even to fear clowns—maybe they've had a
bad clown experience as a child or once met
a clown they didn't like. Jack Handy, author of
Deep Thoughts on Saturday Night Live, gives
his story: "To me, clowns aren't funny. In fact,
they're kind of scary. I've wondered where
this started and I think it goes back to the
time I went to the circus, and a clown killed
my dad."
Who knows what's behind a clown's white-
painted face? And it's not just the make-up
that can scare people away. Clowns also represent anarchy and are personifications of
the irrational.
This brings us to the dichotomy of clowns.
In one sense, clowns are seen as whiter-faced
fools that many people dislike or distrust. In
another sense, clowns act as entertainers and
social provocateurs that play an important
role in society.
The hate and fear of clowns:
Coulrophobia
The hatred of clowns is so bad these days
that the www.ihateclowns.com website is the
first hit in a Google search for "clowns," and
gets between 500 and 1000 visitors a day.
The website also sells ihateclown merchan
dise including t-shirts with anti-clown slogans
such as "Can't sleep, clowns will eat me,'
from The Simpsons. Rodney Blackwell, the
site's creator and designer, says that he isn't
actually afraid of clowns because that would
give them too much power; instead he likeS to
say, "I just don't like them."
Rodney thinks his dislike of clowns stems
from seeing The Whiz, a movie with clowns
as well as Michael Jackson,
too many times as a child.   "Jf VOlt Cclll't
What he knows of clowns ^
comes from the movies and   klUgh at yOlirSelf
he's decided that he doesn't
like what he's seen. Rodney  yOU are UllSSlIlg
feels that there are a lot of
people out there who hate
clowns and likes to think of
his website as a sanctuary
for the anti-clown community. According to Rodney, in a
perfect world, all the clowns
would be placed on a deserted island, as they used to do
with lepers.
Can anyone blame
Rodney for his views when the press is ripe
with negative clown imagery? A popular character on the sketch comedy show In Living
Color had Damon Wayans dressed up as
Homey D. Clown, an abrasive and uncaring
clown who, when asked to perform a stereotypical clown gag, uttered his trademark,
"Homey don't play that" and hit people over
the head.
But Homey is only the tip of the iceberg.
the biggest joke
of your life."
—David
MacMurray-Smith
clowning instructor
The shock-rock band Insane Clown Posse
dress up as wretched, evil-looking clowns
while Stephen King's novel, IT, features
Pennywise the Clown murdering Uttle children. My personal favourite is the cult horror
film Killer Klowns from Outer Space, in which
evil alien clowns come to small-town America
and use mutant popcorn and cotton candy
to harvest the town's inhabitants—to eat
that is. The movie's tagline:
In space, no one can hear
ice cream.
Rodney feels that "in
general, clowns as a people
are bad." But when asked.
Constable Sarah Bloom of
the Vancouver police could
not recall any crimes committed by clowns in
Vancouver. Staff Sgt Barry
Hickman of the University
RCMP said flat out "There
is no reason to fear clowns
at UBC."
So are there rational reasons to fear or hate clowns?
David Jacobi a post-doctoral student of psychiatry at UBC, acknowledges that clowns can
indeed be scary.
"Through a child's eyes, clowns can be
very threatening," Jacobi says, noting that a
childhood fear of clowns could turn into a
discomfort with clowns once that child
reaches adulthood. Jacobi, who works at the
anxiety disorders unit at UBC, says that no
one in the psychiatry department has seen a
patient with a fear of clowns, adding that "the
fear of clowns is not something we see in
clinical practice." But he cautions that this
does not mean people aren't afraid of
clowns. The fear of clowns may be like other
specific types of fears—such as the fear of
heights or the fear of spiders—in that they
are pretty common but, since they don't
interfere with day to day functionhig, people
don't often seek medical attention.
- The fear of clowns is called Coulrophobia,
a word coined in recent years because of a
high interest in the subject if you type in
"fear of clowns" on Google, the second hit is
The Phobia Clinic, an online clinic where
people can call and receive help with their
phobias. Using methods based on neuro-lin-
guistic programming, which involves repro-
gramming how the brain reacts to certain
stimuli (like clowns for instance), The Phobia
Clinic promises to cure you of your fear
of clowns within 24 hours of therapy,
guaranteed.
Charging $1000, most of The Phobia
Clinic's business comes from the fear of pubUc speaking, something Seymour Signet the
president and founder of the clinic, says can
interfere with how you run your life very
much. But Seymour adds, "We have had zero
cUents with a fear of clowns so far."
Seymour says there is only one fear—fear
itself. "Eveiyone knows that it's ridiculous to
be afraid of clowns. We might as well make
fun of the fear but not the person having the
fear." To the individual person, says
Seymour, the fear is very real.
"The way we feel about anything has to do
with the way our mind is storing it," says
Seymour, who is not a doctor or a psychologist According to him, when we see a clown
our first reaction might not be fear. Instead,
our brain will simply ask itself, 'Oh, I see a
clown, how should I react?' But if we had a
negative clown experience in our past, the
brain would tell us to be afraid.
In order to cure people of their fears, The
Phobia Clinic uses methods such as anchoring, where a positive emotion is brought in to
associate with a negative stimulus. There is
also Time Line Therapy™, which is "a way of
assisting people in letting go of negative
emotions    to    past    experiences,"    says
by Zerah Lurie
FEATURES WRITER
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Seymour. Jacobi suggested that the fejr -f
clowns would typically be treated through
gradual exposure to clownery until the
patient becomes habituated. He specifically
warns that "what often maintains fears is
avoidance."
Once Rodney's local paper took the expo=-
sure approach and put him in a room with a
clown to see how he'd react. "I did once meet
a clown," he says, "and got to know the person behind the makeup. I thought they were
nice but still couldn't understand why they
chose to wear the clown makeup."
And now a word from the clowns
While Rodney admits there is something
about the clown mask that he doesn't trust
he says the major reason that he doesn't like
clowns is that "they don't understand what's
funny or where the limits are."
But real clowns, it seems, don't want to
bother people. Lisa Voth, a theatre student at
SFU who has taken several clown theory
courses, related that when she clowned at the
Vancouver Folk Festival, she purposely
avoided people who didn't want to interact
with her. "I think there is a responsibiUty on
the part of a clown to develop a relationship
and feel where the person you are interacting with is."
Marcel Lebrun, a performing arts and
music teacher at an elementary school in
North Vancouver, has no formal clown training, unlike Lisa. Marcel works part-time as
Twister the Clown, performing at eveiything
from birthday parties to school assembUes.
Twister can do everything you would expect
a clown to do such as juggle, ride a unicycle
and twist balloons. Marcel also feels that an
important part of clowning is learning
how to deal with people and respecting
their space.
"Whenever I encounter kids that are
afraid of me,. I pretend I'm afraid of them,"
, he says, adding that getting in the child's face
is the wrong thing to do. Taking clowning
very seriously, Marcel sees himself as an
entertainer first. "Bringing professionalism
to clowning is one of the most important
paiU jf it," he jJJs. S-.-iv* 'jf Twister's professional rules are that he always goes to parties already dressed, never eats and even
tries not to go to the bathroom.
Yet, even with his professionalism.
Marcel admits that he has been affected by
all the negative imagery surrounding clowns
in the media. "Krusty breaks all the rules of
the professional clown," says Marcel, who
has been very sensitive to how people
approach clowns and has
created Twister's image in
response to it. 'One of the
reasons I'm moving away
from the traditional clowns
is because of the stigma
associated with them."
Twister the Clown is an
example of an auguste
clown, which instead of the
classic white-face clown,
uses more flesh-tone makeup. Auguste clowns are the
least intelUgent of the clowns (even though
that is not saying much) and tend to be the
zaniest, which as Marcel describes it,
involves a lot of slap stick and falling down.
Typically, everything an auguste clown does
blows up in his face.
The white-face type is what most people
associate with the word "clown." They are the
most intelligent ofthe clowns and tend to be
- the ringleader of any clown gangs. In a pair,
the white-face clown would be the straight
clown while the auguste clown would act as
the fool.
But clowning is about more than just
entertainment. Teaching clowning (or
clownology if you will) at his studio, Fantastic
Spaces Enterprises, David MacMurray-
Smith, like Marcel, takes clowning veiy seriously. "I .don't think kids need clowns anyways," says David. "They need playmates.
Adults need clowns." To David, who is also a
theatre professor at SFU, clowning is about
confronting the myths surrounding reality.
"Clowns can challenge you to think," he says.
"We can't be all about civil order—we have
to relax."
One class where David teaches his theories is called 'Creative character develop-
"In general,
clowns as a
people are bad."
—Rodney Blackwell
creator and designer
www.ihateclowns.com
MICJjj-LlE MAYNE PHOTpl
ment and personal transformation through
clown.' He feels his studio is a place for
studying the nature of human performance
and likes to use clowning as a way for performers to investigate themselves.
As one of David's former students, Lisa
also views clowning as an exploration of the
human condition. She does not associate
clowns with the costumes, balloons and
makeup, and instead views clowning as a
new way to approach
things and interact with
the world. Lisa agrees that
clowns explore aspects of
people that they don't necessarily explore themselves. This, she feels, is in
essence why people are
afraid of clowns. Many of
us. don't want to explore
certain parts of ourselves.
The dislike comes from
the way a clown is a provocateur, says David. Even just a clown drawing
attention to itself can be provoking to some
people. David explains that those people
don't want the clown to come close because
then other people will notice them through
the clown's interaction. David explains that
"when you're seen pubUcly, you're given the
challenge of looking at yourself through other
people's eyes because you're'often judging
yourself through what you think other people
are seeing."
David beUeves it is appropriate to fear
clowns and says, "It's a scary thing to be
asked to readjust your perception of your reality." But, by readjusting your perceptions,
David also argues that the clown plays
an important role; clowns can help
break down social images. And let's not
forget that some people (and you know who
you are) actually do find clowns funny and
entertaining.
People who react to clowns with fear are
missing the point, David feels. According to
him, we all Uve in our own reahties and
clowns are a necessary tool to help us explore
that reality. "If you can't laugh at yourself," he
says, "you are missing the biggest joke of
your hfe." ♦ EDTORAL
THE UBYSSEY
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 31, 2003
VOLUME 85 ISSUE 17
the ubyssey magaiine
EDITORIAL BOARD
COORDINATING EDITOR
Hywel Tuscano
NEWSEDFTORS
Megan Thomas
Jonathan Woodward
CULTURE EDITOR
John Hua
SPORTS EDITOR
Jesse Marchand
FEATURES/NATIONAL EDITOR
Heather Pauls
PHOTO EDITOR
Michelle Mayne
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Paul Carr
Iva Cheung
COORDINATORS
VOLUNTEERS
Sarah Bourdon
RESEARCH/LETTERS
Bryan Zandberg
COVER
PHOTO
Michelle Mayne
DESIGN
Paul Carr
The Ubyssey is tfie official student newspaper of the University of
British Columbia. It is published every Tuesday and Friday by The
Ubyssey Publications Society.
We are an autonomous, democratically run student organisation,
and all students are encouraged to participate.
Editorials are chosen and written by the Ubyssey staff. They are the
expressed opinion of the staff, and do not necessarily reflect the"
views of The Ubyssey Publications Society or the University of
British Columbia.
The Ubyssey is a founding member of Canadian University Press
(CUP) and adheres to CUP's guiding principles.
All editorial content, appearing in The Ubysseyis tfie property of The
Ubyssey.Pub.licatipns Society: Stories, opinions, photographs and
artwork- corrtafnedf herein cannot be reproduced without the
expressed, written permission of The Ubyssey Publications Society.
Letters to the editor must be under 300 words. Please include your
phone number, student number and signature (not for publication)
as well as your yea1 and faculty with all submissions. ID will be
checked when submissions are dropped off at the editorial office of
The U&yssey,'otherwise verification will be done by phone.
"Perspectives" are opinion pieces over 300 words but under 750
words and are run according to space:
"Freestyles- are opinion pieces written by Ubyssey staff members.
Priority will be given to letters and perspectives over freestyles
unless the latter is time sensitive Opinion pieces will not be run
until the identity oi the writer has been verified.
It is agreed by all persons placing display or classified advertising
that if the Ubyssey Publications Society fails to publish an advertisement or if an error in the ad occurs tfie liability of the UPS will
not be greater than the price paid for the ad. The UPS shall not be
responsible for slight changes or typographical errors that do not
lessen the value or the impact of the ad.
EDITORIAL OFFICE
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tel: 604-822-2301
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BUSINESS OFFICE
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advertising: 604-822-1654
business office: 604-822-6681
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BUSINESS MANAGER
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AD SALES
Dave Gaertner
AD DESIGN
On the planet Tatooine. Biyan Zandberg wiiined, 'But I have to go to Tashi st*-
lion and pick up lhe power converters!' Hywel Tuscano was off with lhe Tuscan
raiders, cavorting with locai sand person Sarah Bourdon. Joni Lo played th*
tuba with her six mouths al Mue Eisiey Cantina.
"Paul Cart, I am jour father,' burped Laura Bins, wielding a Nic Fensom design
lightgabre. John H"ua dressed up in lhat Leia slave outfit (and what an outfit! J to
please Zerah Lurie and Emily Cordonier. Michelle Mayne. in a Ut of Jealousy,
turned Megan Thomas into a block of SOLID CARBONITE while Michael Cook
turned to the fuscbiaside ofthe force. Ania Mail wailed in a fit of rage that only
Jonathan Woodward could hear it an estruscharged St of Wookie-lust Dario
Todovoric smell the pan-species love in the air. decided thai bestiality was what
Star Wart wai all about and joined Sam Schroeder in an obtuse Ewok-Iav«
rhombus. Emih/ Cordonier and Melissa Rhode got it on in the Death Star wtul*
Darth Trevor Chu breathed heavily into his faceplate. 'I see dead people.' ha
rasped, mixing Mb movie reference*
Jesse Marchand piped up, "Take the Enterpris
decapitated by Carina Cojeen.
•iiHr
Canadian
University
Press
Canada Post Salet Agreement Numtor 0732141
But rubber
masks
stink!
As we editors lace up our boots and head out to
Edmonton for Halloween, we've been grasping at
straws tiying to come up with creative and silly
costumes for ourselves. This hasn't taken us very
far. Pirates have been done countless times and
pretty princesses are so passe.
So that our faithful readers don't stress out
about their own costuming ideas, we decided to
point to some suggestions, keeping in mind that
when we point, four fingers are pointing to ourselves—well, three fingers and a thumb, wait the
thumb is facing kind of forwards, or at least
downwards, so three fingers, but that's a majority, so the point stands.
So here is our compendium, of costumery,
happily bedecking readers as people of importance since 1918.
George Bush Sr: Dress up like George W Bush
(who's currently dressing up like George
BushSr).
Rush Limbaugh: Stick a needle in your arm.
Sweat profusely. Berate yourself for your own
character flaws.
Al Gore: Conform yourself to a wooden pole.
Don't run for president
Justin Timberlake: Dress up like Michael
Jackson, but less white. Ohl
AMS Prez Oana Chirila: Knock out a safeway
pharmacist and steal her lab coat Sniff chloroform. While unconscious, administer the AMS.
AMS VP Finance Brian Duong: Dress up in
commerce student-style suits. Fawn over the
Ubyssey's news editors. Or at least one of them.
Act all familiar and high school nostalgic with the
coordinating editor.
AMS VP Students, um, External, um.
Academic Laura Best Die your hair fuschia. Don't
wear underwear. Giggle to yourself in your hoity-
toity office. Secretly plot your flight to France.
AMS VP External Sam Saini: Don't answer
messages. Ever.
AMS VP Admin Josh Bowman: Study the
drunk-ass picture of Josh Bowman near the front
PAGE FRIDAY
Friday, October 31,2003
door of the SUB intently, then imitate the same
bloodshot-eyed, slack-jawed expression. Oh, and
wear a bandana or something.
Kate Woznow: Assume air of righteousness.
Jump on nearest bandwagon. Shout
Gordon Campbell: Wear your Maui parole outfit And don't drive in this costume. Please.
Jean Chretien: Stay in meat locker for a month
preceding Halloween. Thaw yourself, but don't
lose that blue pallour.
Paul Martin: Just try to wipe that damn I'm-
the-next-prime-minister smile off your face. Fail.
Your dad: Daddy only smokes because you cry.
Shakira: Get wet
Chiristina Aguilera: Get dirty.
Britney Spears: And kiss Madonna.
Madonna: Randomly pick up accents, deep
throat longneck bottles, make out with Britanny
Spears and then have a baby... and repeat
The Pope: Wear high-top sneakers. Swear a lot
A Mennonite: Get a lap dance. Say ifs' okay
because you didn't inhale.
Macintosh computer: Be less functional, more
expensive, but oh-so-more endearing.
Larry Campbell: Dress up like a clown.
UBC VP Students Brian Sullivan: Whenever
anyone starts to talk tuition, assume bland smile
and put in earplugs.
Clown: Dress up like Larry Campbell.
UBC President Martha Piper: Bowl. Scissors.
You do the math.
Martha Piper's imaginary friend Bort:
Because Bort has bite.
Trans fatly acids: Be a silent killer.
A Mime: Be a silent killer.
The original Zorro movie: Be a silent thriller.
Eminem: Don't do it You're better off dressing up as Oprah, because even she has more
street cred, but, oddly enough, less commentaiy.
Anyone in a lie Point picture: Fake 'n' bake
for weeks. Formulate smile from toxic plasticine
and apply liberally. Make all your friends write
articles' about you. Riddle them with spelling
mistakes.
Frodo: Transplant your back hair onto your
feet Fall in love with Samwise. Have short, short'
children.
The Ubyssey. Make wisecracks about public
figures. Drink. Think you're funny. Escape to
Edmonton. ♦
r I I rrCN
Sessionals more than substitutes
by Norma Wieland
Fair Employment Week is designed
to draw attention to the plight of sessional faculty at universities across
the country. What is a sessional faculty member arid why does UBC as
an institution need to be reminded
ofthe existence of one fifth of its faculty? Surely a university with a 'people first' vision and which loudly
proclaims its interest in the importance of teaching as well as
research, would be a leader ih fair
treatment for all its faculty? Or?
Consider the long 'trek" "of sessionals at UBC. Twenty-five years
ago there were not very many sessional lecturers on campus. Those
who were here constituted a relatively small number of scholars and
teachers who took over the teaching
duties of professors on sabbatical
leave. They were thus hired 'for the
session' of that leave.
In a few departments with large
first and second year courses, sessional facully were needed to teach
sections which could not be covered
by the number of tenured and
tenure-track faculty available.
Gradually, the practice began of hiring sessional faculty not just for one
session, but year after year, to teach
core courses. ■
Sessionals took on administrative and advising roles in their
units, some even became responsible for entire programs as well as
curriculum planning and development Excellent teachers—sessionals are constantly evaluated and are
kept to a high standard of teaching—
gradually became more and more
essential to the pedagogical requirements of their departments.
Now, almost 30 years later, sessional faculty are the backbone of
many programs; they are now the
face of UBC to hundreds of undergraduate students. Year after year
they encourage and
inspire generations
of students, yet they
remain on the margins of academic
life, a 'shadow' faculty, nevertheless
essential to the teaching mandate of
the university.
For many years there was no
protection in the form of a
Conditions of Appointment
Agreement for sessional faculty at
UBC. their position within departments was open to abuse and
exploitation. Low pay, lack of benefits, high teaching loads and complete marginalisation characterised
these years. The first real gains
came with a Collective Agreement
in 1998 which addressed some of
the main concerns of sessional faculty at the time. This agreement
gave them protection in some areas
such as a measure of seniority in
appointment and re-appointment
eligibility for benefits, a career path
PERSPECTIVE
Opil 171 l
)
mto a continuing appointment and
a more inclusive voice in departmental processes which affect
them. Part-time sessionals were
included in an agreement in 1999.
The next few years saw an increasing number of attempts on the part
of the university to ignore or get
around the terms to which they had
agreed. This last year, in fact, has
been spent in a lengthy and costly
arbitration to ensure that the
administration did
not claw back the
gains which had
been so painstakingly made.
From the point
of view of students,
sessional faculty are indistinguishable from other faculty members
who teach or advise them. Students
cannot tell by looking at a faculty
member whether he or she has an
eight month, nine month, ten
month or a lifetime appointment
What they are interested in is the
best possible educational experience and being taught by the best
teachers, whether they be sessional
of regular faculty.
Although 'teaching' comes
before 'research' in the University
Act's list ofthe Powers and Duties of
a University, both are obviously
essential to a healthy university and
well-educated students. It is important for research faculty to be prime
contributors to the university mis
sion, but the reality facing us now is
that there is not enough 'regular'
faculty to go around. Each time a
professor receives a grant that
includes a teaching buy-out, a sessional is needed. Each time a new
section of a first or second year
course is opened up, a sessional is
needed, each time there is a push to
reduce the teaching load of regular
faculty, a sessional is needed. It is
obvious that the university could
not carry out its mandate without its
teaching faculty.
So who are the sessional faculty
we are highlighting this week?
They are scholars, teachers, advisors, curriculum developers,
course and lab coordinators. Many
have research degrees and are
engaged in research (in spite of
the lack of encouragement to do
so). They are teaching prize-winners, service prize-winners,
authors and mentors. They are faculty members who have sessional
appointments and they deserve a
living wage, an acknowledgement
of their contribution to our university and the expectation of integration and acceptance in the academic life of the institution. The
Trek Vision statement promises
no less.
—Norma Wieland is a
Senior Instructor in
Central, Eastern and Northern
European Studies PAGE FRIDAY
Friday, October 31,2003
'theubyssey tna§aiin€
SPORTS
7
Volleyballs and dance halls
T-Bird Emily Cordonier talks about
the women's volleyball team's
recent trip to Montreal
by Emily Cordonier
SPORTS WRITER
This past weekend we—the members of the UBC women's volleyball team—headed to Quebec to
face off against the best competition that the east has to offer. As
the last weekend before our regular season matches began, our
team had hoped to compete hard
against the Quebecois and finish
our pre-season on a positive note.
Mission accomplished.
As the tallest team in Canada-
half of our team is six feet tall or
more—we proved to be an intimidating competitor for the typically
shorter and defense-oriented
Quebec squads.
We also got a chance to experience some of Montreal's charm
and beauty. Our team was given a
rushed tour of the city by our
Montreal-born assistant coach
Joanna Ross' father. The two-
minute tour of the beautiful Notre
Dame Cathedral was particularly
memorable.
Soma of us girls did a great job
at ignoring our appetites, and put
our meal money to far better use:
shopping on StCatherine's street.
So what if my stomach would not
stop rumbling at me all weekend? I
had a new shirtl
But despite all of the fun we
. were having, there was work to be
done in Montreal. Our dynamic
and young squad, led by fifth year
captain Amy Schroeder, took on
the University of Montreal
Thursday evening and won-with: a
score of 3-1.
We continued to dominate
Friday morning against McGill
University, winning 3-0, followed
by a quick drive to Quebec City in
order to play Laval that same night.
With fatigue beginning to set in.
the Thunderbirds lost a hard-
fought match in a close fifth set to
the strong Laval squad. But we had
a chance to redeem ourselves
Saturday night when we faced
Laval once again.
In preparation for that night,
we sacrificed a tour of Quebec City
in favour of a day of sleep in the
hotel. Our rest seemed to pay off,
because we Thunderbirds " came
but with new energy and a fire that
proved to be too much for Laval.
There was no doubt as to who was
the stronger team that night. Our
team put them away, winning in
three straight sets.
Fellow teammate and setter
Amy Schroeder accredited the second time win to 'our tough serving
combined with the fact that they
had such difficulty getting the ball
past our massive block.'
Coach Doug Reimer found the
weekend to be a very beneficial
one for our squad. 'Our main
objective was to play good teams
with different styles and to see how
well we can play when faced with
adversity," he said. "Pre-season is
about preparation and getting better. And in terms of development
for this team it was an important
trip. It was good to see the team
play well and with such heart."
We finished off our successful
weekend by celebrating in true
Thunderbird fashion: dancing it up
at Caf Campus in Montreal's beautiful city. There, the.T-Birds once
again stole the show but this time
it was with pur dancing prowess.
And with Danielle Van Huizen, our
crowd-surfing phenomenon, the
Quebecois gladly embraced us as
their own.
Rookie Maya Miguel, when
commenting on her first road trip
with the squad, said it best when
she exclaimed, 'the T-Birds sure
change your
Toronto $298
New York $394
London,.. .....$602
Los Angeles... $198
Lima $903
Fare is round trip from Vancouver. Subject to change and availabifit r
Tax not included. Restriction* and blackouts apply.
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■<iwl
BC reg 26664
exciting things are happening 9
www.sfcadravel.ca
TRAVEL
WE'VE BEEN THERE.
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VARSITY ROADTRIPS THE TELL-ALL STORY: Left side volleybalfer Emily Cordonier shares the
Thunderbirds travel secrets, from shopping in Montreal to beating some of the east's best teams.
MICHELLE MAYNE PHOTO
know how to play volleyball, and    with the  Thunderbirds tonight    against Simon Fraser University.
they sure know how to party!" when we kick off our first home     The Halloween opener starts  at
True. Very true.  Come party    game   of   the   regular   season     7pm. ♦
INVEST
YOUR TIME,
NOT YOUR
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Some ladies go for
guys who play
sports, but not me.
Nope.
I go for guys (and
ladies) who write
for sports. They're
so much more
"deep" and "avant
garde" and "whatever."
Yeah, write a little
sports;
Get a little lovin\
meeting:
next Tuesday at 2pm
SUB room 24
basement
sports ©ubyssey.bc.ca PAGE FRIDAY
Friday, October 31,2003
the ubyssey .magazine.
85
years
THE UBYSSEY
StiHwUmgpkkvtl n[) tit 85.
In Celebration
of our:
85fh GimTversanj
We are
'Shamelessly'
giving away:
+TWO UBYSSEY
$3000
ENDOWMENTS to
be used toward
tuition to 2 UBC
students in good
standing with the
paper.
tEURORAIL TRIP and
travel certificates
from Travel Cuts.
* GIFT CERTIFICATES
from the UBC
Bookstore for all
your bookstore
needs.
*TWO NOKIA 3300
CELL PHONES with
4 months paid
airtime (to win
send your best
Ubyssey & Nokia
slogans to:
ubysseygiveaway
@hotma il.com).
PNE
annua 8
fantastic
Spooky's takes Fright Nights to a whole other dimension with new scares
FRIGHT NIGHTS
at the PNE
until Nov. 1
by Ania Mafi
CULTURE WRITER
In case you haven't checked it out
yet, this is your last chance to see the
haunted houses at the PNE this
Halloween. The scares go nightly
until November 1 and include four
freakishly fantastic haunted houses,
not to mention unlimited rides on
the three scariest rides the PNE has
to offer: Hell's Gate, the classical and
always amusing Coaster and the Big
Swing Ride (which for many is
everything scary summed up in two
minutes of air gliding on a swing).
I had the pleasure of getting an
insider's look from Chris Laing, who
was a member of the production
team behind the scary surprises.
For the first time, Spooky's Haunted
Houses Inc., an Alberta-based com-
BANANA OR DIE: Monkeys can be scary too. nic fensom photo
pany, has set up their haunted hous- er. According to Laing, this event
es at the PNE for an event that has has generated crowds larger than
proven to be a definite crowd pleas-    expected, and it will most likely be
returning to Vancouver for more
'spooktacular' Halloweens. Each
haunted house features five to ten
actors eagerly waiting inside, clever-
• ly hidden away behind ghoulish
backdrops and props. The sound
effects and lighting set the mood for
one fun and freaky experience.
Although the lineups can get
quite long, and not eveiyone may
find the haunted houses scary, there
is still amusement in the experience
as a whole. A few Halloween
inspired games are open for those
who like winning useless stuffed
animals for their significant other.
And as always at the PNE, the rides
axe never disappointing. Last, but
definitely not least, nothing beats a
hot sugary elephant ear and a cold
drink. If you're stuck for something
to do on Halloween, or even the
night after, go check this out. Go
early, stay late and remember that
costumes never get frowned upon,
so dress up. ♦
The little ghost
that couldn't
GHOST TRAIN
at Stanley Park
until Nov. 2
by Dario Todorovic
CULTURE WRITER
I anticipated writing a warm and
fuzzy segment on the Ghost Train,
urging everyone to go for a pleasant
ELLIOT? ET makes for scares.
MICHELLE MAYNE PHOTO
Halloween ride complete with
treats, hot chocolate and marshmal-
lows. This being my first time, 1 was
expited, especially since the Park
Board website boasted the event as
"the best date night around for the
month of October/ enhanced
through live performances "by a
group of some of Vancouver's most
creative and imaginative artists."
When I arrived, parking was
plentiful. There were no lineups and
I anticipated a fun night complete
with a chilly ride on an open-car
train. Having shelled out the nine
dollar admission fee (adult price), I
looked forward to at least a 30-
minute breai from entertaining my
date. By no means did I think the
Ghost Train would be scary or wild
since it was a family event, so I was,
therefore, fully prepared for cheap
props and exhibits (this year's
theme is Alien Invasion). But at nine
dollars per person, the eight-minute
ride is undoubtedly the worst value
for a family event in the city. Since
child fare is $4.50, a family of four
would have to pay close to $30 for a
slow and mediocre ride that hardly
lasts eight minutes. As for the live
performances, I counted a total of
CHOO CHOO! Ghost train riders take a voyage into the great
Unknown. MICHELLE MAYNE PHOTO
four actors; stuffed dummies decorated most ofthe sets.
Considering that sensational
community events'such as the Trout
Lake Lantern Festival or the Alice
Lake Lantern Festival are completely free, this is undoubtedly the most
disappointing public event I have
attended.
The Stanley Park Ghost Train is
undoubtedly neither entertaining
nor affordable for either children or
adults. Paying nine dollars for an
eight-minute ride is like taking a
child to a local playground at
Disneyland prices. On second
thought, at least the playground
time would last longer. ♦
Read
THE UBYSSEY
for further
announcements!
<9
o,
Interview with a vampire in a
Dracula
COLORADO BALLET
at The Centre
until Nov. 2
by Dario Todorovic
CULTURE WRITER
Having received rave reviews from their home
audiences of Denver for two seasons, the
Colorado Ballet brings their mesmerising and
chilling performance of Dracula to Vancouver
just in time for Halloween.
A modern rendition of Bram Stoker's classic
tale, Dracula is a feast for the eyes and ears.
Performed with all the skill and control tradi-
. tionally associated with ballet while incorporating energy and theatric manipulation, choreographer Michael Pink brings together segments
of climactic duos, impressive chorus dances
and heart-pounding music to create a performance which oozes in blood and insanity yet
manages recognisably to stay true to the ballet
form. Dracula continuously experiments with
sets, presentation and delivery, incorporating
theatrical techniques not traditionally applied
in ballet, and still tells a complete story with
themes and individual exploration.
Though foremost a dance exploring the dark
and forbidden world of the Nosferatu and their
lord Dracula, the ballet also succeeds, as a sub-
theme, in exploring Victorian society.
Masterfully, Pink directs a performance of
dance and movement which somehow presents
and delivers criticism of the social hierarchy of
Victorian society which forbids the lower class
to engage with the upper. Symbolically, it is the
upper classes that suffer at the hands (or should
I say teeth) of Count Dracula, who enacts his
cruel punishment upon his social equals by
appropriately feeding on their blood; an insane
man is spared, however, only to be fed to the
Nosferatu lower classes, Dracula's own servants. Only in a masterful execution of dance,
music and theatre, complete with beautiful sets,
costumes and acting, could a ballet deliver an
exploration of Victorian elitism.
If there is any criticism to be made, a word
must be said about Pink's choice of interludes.
It will strike anyone in the audience that at least
two segments do not fit into the general flow
and plot of the ballet and awkwardly stand out
from the greater presentation. Although these
segments are decently executed, they disorient
the audience, potentially leading toboredom.
Outside of these distractions, the main
sequences are entirely wholesome and fulfilling, and the last performance delivers an eerie
yet charming dance by the blood-soaked vampires. Hua Zhuang delivers a brilliant performance as the Count, managing to actually frighten the audience with sudden emergences from
the darkness. Other individual performances
testify to the skillful versatility and energy of
the Colorado Ballet, which is to be expected
from a troupe composed of men and women
from seven different countries. This is one
event that will keep you dancing while you
trick-or-treat. ♦

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