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The Ubyssey Oct 16, 1991

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Array the Ubyssey
Founded in 1918
Vancouver, B.C., Wednesday, October 16,1991
Vol 74, No 13
Election candidates discuss women's
rights and reproductive choice
by Carla Maftechuk
Provincial election candidates from three parties discussed issues of women's choice
on abortion at an all candidates
meeting last Thursday night.
t Approximately 100 people
gathered at the meeting, sponsored by the BC Coalition of
'Abortion Clinics, to hear representatives from the NDP, Social
Credit and Green Parties talk
about their positions.
"We need universal access
to abortion services throughout
this province," said Jackie
Larkin of the BCCAC in an
| opening presentation. "This
r-» question of a woman's right to
control her own body has always
been in the front line of the
struggle for women's rights."
Darlene Marzari, NDP candidate for Vancouver-Point
Grey, said, "The election itself is
about choice. New Democrats
believe that women, not government, have the right to make
their own choices on abortion.
Freedom of choice has to extend
to all areas of women's lives."
Joy Davies, Social Credit
candidate for Vancouver-
Burrard, said "Abortion and
birth are choices. We are born
with reproductive capabilities.
We are given, by nature, the
right of choice.
"Our party position is free
choice. There is no policy; it is up
to the individual to make up
their own minds on this issue. I
am not in favour of free-standing clinics," she said.
Davies and Hilda Thomas
of the Everywoman's Health
Centre disagreed over the current status of funding for abortion clinics. Thomas said that
counselling and nursing are not
funded, while Davies maintained that everything connected to running the clinic is
funded except for "administration."
"The NDP wants to see
women's reproductive health
clinics wherever needed in the
province," Marzari said.
Valerie Parker, Green party
candidate for Vancouver-
Quilchena, also stood in support
UBC child battles with
Lrare form of leukemia
by Chung Wong
In search ofthe perfect bone
marrow: thatis the deadly quest
four-year-old Colin Beechinor
must follow at UBC in the next
part of his life.
The Summer of '73 UBC
daycare child is battling a rare
terminal form of leukemia that
is curable only by a perfect bone-
marrow match.
His mother Kathleen, a recent UBC sociology graduate,
took her child to the hospital
last week after he started
Blood tests just before
Thanksgiving later revealed
that the Colin had Mosonomy 7.
Of about 3,000 leukemia patients monitored annually in
North America, only 20 have
Mosonomy 7.
As it stands now, the odds
are stacked up against the campus child.
In 1990, about 10,000people
heeded the three-month nationwide Qater international) call of
the late Elizabeth Lue. The six-
year-old Torontonian had
aplastic anaemia, a rare disease
curable by only a perfect bone-
marrow match. Doctors had said
only 1 in 20,000 people had a
perfect match for her.
FortJolin, the odds are about
1 in 75,000.
There are only 23,000 potential donors currently on the
staff for potential bone-marrow
"I had a very sick kid myself," said Pat Barber, a UBC
political science student who is
helping to spearhead the campaign. "We had a farm but when
our youngest got sick, it necessitated a change in lifestyle.
"Doctors gaveTheodoreonly
75 per cent chance to live—I
know that" s much better than
Colin's chances—but this another chance to do something
important, it's family stuff."
Theodore, also aged four, is
one of Colin's closest friends.
They both attend Summer of
Barber said he realizes students may not have time to aid
in Colin's life-saving campaign,
but he will ask every major
campus group for aid in class-
to-class pleas for help.
"Our time is so taxed between papers andtests,"Barber
said. "We're going to try and
make it easy for students."
Barber added that daycare
parents—who met on Sunday—
are trying to take as much media pressure as possible off
Colin's mother Kathleen.
Students wanting to donate
bone marrow should look out for
information sessions that will
be held on campus in the near
future. Potential donors must
attend information sessions either held on campus or at the
of free-standing abortion clinics.
"It's time to start making
women's issues a priority in the
province," Parker said.
Linda Reed, Liberal candidate for Richmond, declined to
attend the meeting. She left the
message that "The question of
choice is a private question between the woman and her doctor and should not be a political
Another Liberal office sent
a package containing statements
on their position, which maintained their 1988 endorsement
of a trimester system.
A violent protestor attempted to disrupt the meeting,
before it had begun. BCCAC
called the police in order to have
the man, who was assaulting
the marshalls in attendance, removed.
Red Cross Canadian Bone Mar<?Red Cross before their blood is
row Registry. screened.
Parents of Colin's daycare Blood tests will reveal if a
willbelaunchingacampus-wide   student can donate their bone
appeal to students, faculty and   marrow.
Colin Beechinor and a cuddly friend.
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October 16,1991 NEWS
%' 'i
Inquiry recommends tuition hikes
by Karen Hill
OTTAWA(CUP)—Stuart Smith,
newly-anointed guardian of the
status quo, says Canadian universities are "fundamentally healthy"
and in no need of "radical change."
The head ofthe Commission of
Inquiry on Canadian University
Education says the quality of
graduates hasn't noticeably declined, despite government funding cuts to the provinces. The cumulative loss from post-secondary
education from 1986-87 to 1994-95
is $9 billion, according to the Canadian Federation of Students.
Even though universities are
"healthy", Smith advocates massive tuition fee hikes accompanied
by revisions to the loan system.
CFS officials say Smith's hikes
could force up some students fees
as much as 250 per cent.
Smith wants students to pay
25 per cent ofthe cost of education,
rather than the current 17 per cent
their tuition fees constitute.
While Smith calls upon students to pay higher fees, his report
excuses the federal government's
record on university funding by
pointing to the current economic
Bone marrow
funding considered
by Ratil Peschiera
Politicians, parents and children gathered Tuesday to discuss
the funding of bone marrow donation in BC.
The meeting took place in the
Red Cross HLALabofSt. Vincent's
Hospital, which houses the only
microscope in BC capable of analyzing and matching donor tissue
samples to recipients. The Canadian Bone Marrow Registry has
only 23,000 potential donors listed
and a backlog of 3500 donors
waiting to be typed.
Kathleen Beechinor attended
the meeting with her son, Colin.
Beechinor, a UBC graduate, recently learned that Colin has
Monosomy 7, a rare form of leukemia that can only be treated with a
donation of bone marrow.
"There are people who are
paying with their lives and we're
not even talking about a lot of
money," Beechinor said. "One microscope costing $40,000, two
technicians and one clerical
stafffperson] are needed to take
care of the backlog. All together
ifs only about $100,000.
"Right now there's only two
technicians, who have to answer
the phone, enter data in the computers and work in the lab."
She said the technicians are
only able to process 30 donors per
Tom Perry, NDP MLA present
at the meeting, said,"Themoneyis
there, it's just a question of priorities. The government, for example,
spent $2.5 million on that phony
Education 2000 and [health minister] Strachan wasted thousands
of dollars by using the ambulance
jet for his own private use."
Perry added that he brought
up increased funding in the Legislature but was cut off for a lunch
break and was ignored. "They
treated it as a joke," he said.
Point-Grey Socred candidate
Richard Wright also attended the
meeting. "I don't think getting the
funding will be difficult at all.
This is a matter of a right to
service and a right to life," Wright
"[The HLALab] is a Red Cross
initiative and they haven't directly
approached the ministry for additional funding."
Sheena Walkie, Red Cross
coordinator for bone marrow
transplant, said, "We're not getting
our money directly from the provincial government. The community group Canadian Blood Agency
has representatives from each
Ministry of Health to assess
funding and the national office
funds each district."
Walkie added that the Red
Cross has to remain neutral and
impartial, especially when government politics are involved.
"We're in the awkward position of being a district funded by a
national office. I cannot confirm or
deny if the BC government has
given any funds because the national office asks for them."
She said that the $100,000
would be helpful, but due to the
amount of work and the large
backlog, the waiting list will
probably not be eliminated.
This has caused frustration
with Kathleen Beechinor.
"We are losing our children
because of a bureaucracy," she said.
CFS chair Kelly Lamrock said
he isn't surprised Smith lets the
government off the hook in the
report, while he nails students.
"He doesn't want to bite the
hand that feeds them," he said.
The commission took $250,000
from the Secretary of State—the
federal departmentresponsiblefor
post-secondary education—to pay
for the study.
Lamrock said the report is
playing directly into the hands of
the federal government.
"This is exactly the kind of
thing the government is looking
for," he said. By saying universities are not facing a crisis in
funding, the government can continue to ignore the pleas of administrators, faculty, staff and
students, Lamrock said.
Smith also recommends the
government gradually increase its
contributions to universities, restore established programme financing, and adopt an income-
contingent loan re payment system.
Student loans would be repaid based on the graduate's income level, rather than automatic
payments six months after the
student leaves school. Students
from "less affluent" backgrounds
would no longer be deterred from
going to university, he says.
That isn't so, according to CFS
deputy-chair Allison Lewis.
"It doesn't replace the fact that
students are going to look at (tuition fees) and say that 'no, I'm not
going to go,m she said. CFS wants
the loan system abolished and replaced by a system of grants, in
addition to reform of the tax system.
Students are not the only ones
upset by Smith's conclusions. The
Canadian Association of University Teachers takes a few stinging
blows. Smith says professors are
sacrificing teaching in favour of
research, which is far more likely
to advance their careers.
CAUT president Fred Wilson
said Smith bases this conclusion
on flawed data.
"I think it's sloppy research
that he's done," he said. Smith
citedtwouniversity reports to back
up his claim about the low number
of hours spent on teaching, and
that is simply insufficient, Wilson
"He doesn't look at the many
factors that lead to the reduction
in teaching hours." And, Wilson
said, many professors are spending
just as much time with students,
although it isn't necessarily during
scheduled lectures.
The report also said universities should:
• survey graduates and employers
to determine if they are adequately
prepared for the workforce;
• expand continuing and distance
education programs;
• make information on teaching
hours available to the public;
• encourage women's studies programs;
• track drop-outs;
• conduct writing tests when students enter university and upon
Smith heard 200 presentations and received 250 reports
during hearings from October to
December, 1990. He was commissioned by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada
to report on how well universities
were carrying out their educational
Donors who contributed a total of $220,000 to the commission
included Alcan, Bell, LBM, Imperial
Oil, Inco, Northern Telecom, Royal
Bank and Xerox.
1,200 line up at the Union Gospel Mission on East Cordova for Thanksgiving
dinner on Monday.
Universities "alienating " students; hindering graduation
by Barbara Zakowskl
onehalf of students who enrol in a
Canadian university will not complete their undergraduate degree
in four years, says a recent study.
A report conducted for the
Association of Universities and
Colleges of Canada says about 42
per cent of students enrolled from
the fall of 1985 to the summer of
1990 had not graduated five years
after admission.
"That's a fairly high percentage," said University of Guelph
sociology professor SidGilbert, who
conducted the study.
George Pederson, president of
the University of Western
Ontario and of the Council of
Ontario Universities, blamed the
attrition rate on inadequate government funding.
"As you get less and less resources you get less and less in the
way of support systems, and larger
classes," he said. "I would be lying
to you if I said we provide better
education now then we did ten
years ago. There is no question
that university education is hurting very badly."
Gilbert said universities
should combat the alienation that
leads to attrition by having academic orientation sessions, greater
student-faculty contact and academic counselling.
He said this would foster a
more encouraging environment for
students in their first year, when
most ofthe undergraduate attrition
"We know that the first year of
studies is traumatic for some students," he said. "Universities
should take a look at having good
professors in the first year. In many
cases they don't have to be hired,
the good professors are already
Chris Lawson, a researcher
for the Ontario Federation of Students, said universities can be
alienating. High tuition fees also
make it difficult for many students
to take a full course load and
graduate in the standard three or
four year period, he added.
"Our major concern is student
finances but the atmosphere at a
university is a concern," he said. "I
think the general feeling among
students is, "Wait a minute, why
should I borrow $10,000 or so to go
to this alienating university?' We
can do something about the financial situation, but we can't
revolutionize the character of a
university overnight."
The study also found women
at some universities are less likely
to complete their studies, and over
89 per cent of part-time students
never graduate.
Deanne Fisher, spokesperson
for the University ofToronto's part-
time student association, said
many students are only attending
school part-time because they
cannot afford the time or money to
take five courses per year.
"The number is disproportionately female," she said. "In
many cases, it's female students
who have the primary responsibility for caring and supporting
their child."
"Universities are notvery good
at getting adequate childcare and
there is no childcare in the evening
when many working students need
Many universities do not design their extracurricular activities
to meet a part-time student's
schedule, she added.
"Part-time students feel less a
part ofthe university because they
are not always on campus, but the
attitude among some people is
•What are you doing here?' Those
attitudes can't persist much longer
because our student population is
getting older."
Gilbert said *». *j large attrition
figure found in his study does not
adequately reflect those students
• have not graduated but are continuing with their studies;
• leave temporarily;
• transfer to other universities or
• were expelled or had to withdraw
from their program because of inadequate grades;
• are "true dropouts"—those students who leave the system completely.
He said although many universities are concerned about enrollment figures, they do not have
the resources to tabulate the data
he requested.
The study recommends further research on why students
leave, and a forum to exchange
data on student attrition.
Gilbert said he hopes his
findings and recommendations will
end the "finger pointing" between
the university community and the
"Unfortunately it (the report)
has come at a time when there isn't
a lot of funding and it may no t go
anywhere. But that is why it is
contingent on better resource allocation."
October 16,1991
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October 19, 1991 from 10:30 a.m. until 5:30 p.m.
College Program Displays
• Flower Arranging
• Music
• Food Fair
• Origami
• Tea Ceremony
• Children's Games
• Workshops
• Calligraphy
2420 Dollarton Highway
(2km east of Second Narrows Bridge)
North Vancouver, B.C. V7H 2Y1
Lorl Durward crosses finish line at Pacific Northwest Run at UBC on Sunday for
second place. She also earned a spot on UBC's Canada West cross-country team.
Bird droppings...
The UBC Thunderbirds head
back into the Canada West football fray this Saturday when they
host the University of Calgary Dinosaurs at Thunderbird Stadium.
The Thunderbirds are coming off a 35-30 last-minute loss to
NCAA division school Humboldt
State while the Dinos most recently defeated the University of
Alberta Golden Bears 24-17.
Kick off is at 7:30 pm.
• The men's soccer team hosts the
University of Victoria Vikings at
O.J. Todd field this Saturday,
starting     at     2     pm.     The
Thunderbirds opened their season against the Vikes with a 1-1
• The women's team, meanwhile,
plays an exhibition tilt against
the University of Puget Sound on
Sunday at 12 noon.
• The women's basketball team
hosts the Fraser Valley College
Cascades on Thursday (October
17) at War Memorial Gym starting at 8 pm.
Canada West Football Standings
British Columbia
90     6
103   6
136   6
181   6
153   4
You can, if you have an
undergraduate degree in any
You may start in May, September, or January
on a full-time or part-time basis.
Thursday, 24 October 1991
1:00 to 3:00 p.m.
Henry Angus Building
Room 213
McGill University
Department of Chartered Accountancy
(514) 398-6154, Fax (514) 398-4448
Redpath Library Building, Room 211
3461 McTavish Street
Montreal, Quebec
Centre for
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October 16,1991 SPORTS
Hockey race is on
by Mark Nielsen
At a relatively limited 28
games, Mike Coflin, coach ofthe
UBC Thunderbirds hockey team,
sees the upcoming Canada West
hockey season as something of a
What's more, he wants his
team to start with a bang.
"The games are really important just because you only play 28
games," he said. "You might be
playing the team that you'll have
to beat out to make the playoffs."
"Manitoba, who we play this
weekend, might be the team we
have to be ahead of at the end of
the year. You have to look at it
every way."
Whether the Bisons will be
the Thirds big rivals remains to be
seen. But the short season can be
a hefty transition for players coming out ofthe 80-game campaigns
of junior hockey where practices
are nothing, games are everything
and even then you can slack off
once in awhile.
As well as practicingfour days
each week, the Thunderbirds play
back-to-back games every weekend which means maintaining a
level of intensity.
"No matter what you do on
the Saturday night, we have to
bounce back again and be just as
excited on Sunday," Coflin said.
"It's one thing to give every-
thingyou have but then have to go
out there and do it again when
you're tired and beat up physically and discouraged or happy
depending on what's gone on the
night before."
"You have to be very mentally
tough, and for people used to going out and playing based on their
talent, that's a new thing."
Coflin hopes, however, that
the Thunderbird's exhibition
schedule, which included a tournament and a two-game set
against Brandon, will get a team
that includes ten new players,
ready for what's ahead.
"We played back-to-back
games against Brandon, three
games in Saskatoon in two days,
so our guys have gone through
that," Coflin said. "Some reacted
well, and some reacted poorly, but
now they know that you really
have to work hard at getting
yourself ready to go."
Moreover, the Thunderbirds
won a couple of those contests
and, according to Coflin, played
well in two others, which is encouraging considering last year.
That was when the Thunderbirds
finished the season with a 15-
game losing streak under the
since-departed Terry O'Malley.
Coflin, who coached the junior
varsity team for two years, took
over this summer.
"The whole coaching staff was
saying look, if we do these things
during a game, then we have a
chance to win' and they experienced that," he said. "So they got
the reward of you know, If we do
these things, then we will win."*
What king of things? Coflin
said the Thunderbirds should be
pretty physical, defensive and will
have to play well as a group and
convert their powerplays.
"We can't just throw our offence up against their offence and
expect to win," he said.
Returnees include team captain and centre Grant Delcourt
who is 15 points shy of becoming
UBC's leading career goal scorer,
and Kevin Hoffman on defense,
who will be akey on the powerplay.
Newcomers include right
wing Darren Kwiatkowski, who
has three years of major junior
experience in the Western Hockey
League as well as defenceman Jeff
Dodds captain of the Junior A
Prince George Spruce Kings last
The Thunderbirds also have
new goalies in Gord Besse from
Red Deer College and Rob Gagnon
from the famed Notre Dame
Hounds programme where he
played Junior A.
The Thunderbirds open
against the University of
Manitoba Bisons this Saturday at
the Winter Centre starting at 7:30
pm and on Sunday at 1:30 pm.
T'birds qualify for Canada West run
by Marie Nielsen
If they're healthy they can
win. In a nutshell, that's the prospect for the UBC Thunderbird's
women's cross-country team as
they get ready for the Canada
West and CIAU national championships, both set for Victoria in
the next few weeks.
Much of whether they'll be
able to improve on last year's
second place finish at the nationals will hinge on how well Meghan
O'Brian has recovered from a bad
hip and if Karen Reader has recuperated enough from an injured
And although neither was
among the medalists at the Pacific
Northwest Run, held on the south
campus fields at UBC on Saturday, coach Marek Jedrezjek was
encouraged by their performances,
especially CBrian's fourth place.
"They have two weeks before
the Canada Wests and one month
before the CIAUs [the national
championships] so they should be
close to fitness by then," he said.
Last year, O'Brian led the
women's team to the Canada West
championship with a first place
finish. Reader was fifth behind
teammate Lori Durward who was
the top UBC runner on Saturday.
Durward, usually a middle-
distance runner, was second to
Liz Jones ofthe Richmond Kajaks
after falling behind in the last
quarter ofthe 4000 metre race.
"I tried to stay with her as
long as I could, but she's got a lot
more endurance than I do,"
Durward said.
Along with a healthy O'Brian
and Reader, who was ninth at the
run, Jedrezjek is counting on Susan Chalmers and Anne Drewa to
fill out a team that he hopes will
have the depth to overtake the
CIAU champions University of
"They (UVic) have three very
good runners, but after that I thi nk
we have more depth, and you get
points for your top five runners,"
Jedrezjek said. "Our fifth runner
is better than their fifth runner
and that's how we can beat them."
As well as the women's team,
Jedrezjek used the run to choose
the men's team which will join the
women at the Canada Wests and
the nationals.
Last year the men finished
third at the Canada Wests, but
this year they'll be without Al
Klassen who finished first in the
Both teams will send ten
members to the University of
Victoria for the Canada West
championships on October 26.
They are:
• Women: Lori Durward, Meghan
O'Brian, Susan Chalmers, Anne
Drewa, Kathy Martin, Karen
Reader, Sherri Conrod, Kirsten
Kotval, Karen Mitchell, Marcie
• Men: Mike Dennison, Gord
Kettyle, Avery Stevenson, Lindsay Carswell, Christien Audet,
Jeff Wirtanen, Trevor Morrison,
Shaun Lucks, Rob Miller, Kevin
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of British
the ROXY!
Wednesday October 16 -
Saturday October 26
Raise money for your group! Hold a Roxy
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October 16,1991
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Oct 22 - 7:30 pm,       Oct 23 thru 26 -1:30 & 7:30 pm
The AMS is currently
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for the
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Pick up an application in Room 238 or see
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Deadline is October 25.
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For more information, contact the Graduate Student Centre at 822-.1203.
Vital theatre wrenches soul
by Greg Davis
WHEN polarities eclipse
each other, darkness
absorbs the light, fear disturbs
shallow comfort, and violence
breaks the uneasy calm.
True West
Dorothy Somerset Studio
until October 19
The polarities in Sam
Shepard's play True West are
the brothers Austin and Lee, the
former an educated, mild
mannered screenwriter,
and the latter a manipulative drifter and cat
burglar. Through their
brutal and intense
interaction they discover
their similarities and
realize truth in their lives,
truth that is always
painful and horrifying.
"Theatre should tell a
story. If the audience
leaves without learning
something, then you didn't
live up to your job," says
Barry Levy, who plays the
hardcase Lee.
Rather than deliver a
message in the literal
sense, True West poses questions
that take lifetimes to answer.
How thin is the veneer of
civilization that we try to adhere
to for security? What dark and
dangerous forces are waiting to
erupt? What rites must we
endure to transcend to salvation?
"Austin is looking for
spiritual enlightenment, Hell
give up his car, his house, his
family for his soul. Lee on the
other hand could care less about
his soul," explains Roger Haskett
Lee already lives the life
Austin glamorizes, and Austin
the life Lee envies, both trying to
break out of their respective
Levy and Haskett do an
exceptional job. The acting is
bold, intense and exhausting. All
the actions are communicated
earnestly, from the tension in the
characters muscles to the
constriction of their throats.
The scenes convey a sense of
being trapped in the stifling
kitchen. Fearful apprehension
undercuts every gesture, some
times erupting in fits of dark
humour. Director Stephen
Malloy, a veteran of presenting
Shepard plays, clearly does
justice to the script.
Secondary characters Saul
Rimmer (Omar Diaz) and Mom
(Lois Anderson) break the
tension and add new dimensions
to the sibling relationship.
The production is presented
by Theatre at Large, a non-profit
society that works as a transition
point for recent graduates. As
artistic director ofthe company,
Levy believes theatre can
challenge the audience to reevaluate their lives and
see the world in a new
Tm really mad at the
state of theatre in
Vancouver. I think it's
sad people go to see
Phantom ofthe Opera
and don't go out to the
theatre again. It's
important to get people
back," he says.
It's important for
people to be able to
swallow the pill, important to deliver the
message so that it hits
home. If you think [a
story] is vital, if you really
think ifs important, you can't
keep people away. Thaf s the
Theatre at Large philosophy."
The show is held over for a
week at the Waterfront Theatre,
Granville Island, November 11-
Community Sports
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Join The Ubyssey before
The Ubyssey joins you.
October 16,1991 ARTS
*•*■ KNkW
Moon shines for Playhouse
by Karlyn Koh
FOR ABOUT two hours,
the audience at the
Vancouver Playhouse is
transported back to rural
America, circa 1923, to the
Hogan farm. And it is here
they enter the lives of Josie
Hogan, her father Phil and
their landlord James Tyrone
Junior—characters created by
Eugene O'Neill in his compelling last play.
A Moon for the Misbegotten
Vancouver Playhouse
until November 2
A Moon for the Misbegotten is about love, redemption
and reconciliation with the
past. Director Kathryn Shaw
has put together a difficult
play with some measure of
success. The play got off to a
shaky start on opening night,
but the actors soon got over
their "opening night jitters"
and delivered some very gutsy
Janet Wright, in the lead
role of Josie Hogan, deserves
praise for her part as the
strong-willed, passionate and
independent farmer's daughter. Wright successfully
combines a fiery and strong
nature with vulnerability and
humanity, and in so doing,
captures the essence of Josie
Hogan, the woman of "infinite
variety" (to borrow
Shakespeare's quote).
In the first scene especially, Josie and Phil Hogan
(Leslie Carlson) provide many
a laugh with their good-
natured bantering and witty
dialogue, which is heavily
peppered with American-Irish
humour a la O'Neill. Although
the charming American-Irish
accent was not steadily
maintained by either Wright
or Carlson, the colourful
verbal antics of father and
daughter made up for it.
The memorable scene
involving Phil and Josie
making a right fool of their
wealthy, snobbish neighbour,
Stedman Harder (Robert
Metcalfe), abounds with
riotous good fun that is
typical ofthe general spirit of
the first half of the play. For
all his roughness and scheming ways, Phil still manages
to gain the audience's sympathy, and the credit goes to
Jerry Franken plays
James Tyrone Jr., the heavy-
drinking playboy with whom
Josie has fallen in love.
Franken is convincing in
carrying off the part ofthe
suave and worldly man, but
he fails to inject any passion
into the role. This is important because at the crux of
the play is the relationship
between Josie and James
Tyrone, as well as the latter's
struggle to come to terms with
the past. So while the first
scene was strongly enacted,
the second half of the play
could not stir any emotions.
There was a lack of artistic
chemistry between Wright
and Franken, which made
their performance in the "love
scene" unconvincing.
In the end, their relationship transcends physical love
and romance, and Josie
becomes Tyrone's redeemer,
encapsulating the myths of
whore, virgin and mother.
This complex and poignant
scene, however, did not get
the sensitive and insightful
handling it demanded.
The other "star" ofthe
show must be the actual set
and lighting. Pam Johnson
created a realistic set which
added to the aura ofthe play.
Gerald King's design ofthe
background projection was
spectacular. The transition
from day to night was a
treat—accompained by soft
country night sounds and
music (created by Greg
Ruddell), it definitely deserves top marks.
The play is worth checking out, if only for Wright and
Carlson's performances and
the beautiful set with the
moon on the misbegotten folks
of small-town New England.
, WhUh
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Present this Ad between 5 p.m. -
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Reservations 731-7899
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Downstairs in
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Social Credit has ignored
young people for too long.
IVs time for a change!
Social Credit is out of touch with the realities facing young people today. A New Democrat government will:
♦ Restore access to education...
by freezing tuition fees pending
review of long-term funding, removing barriers to education, and expanding key academic programs
sure an affordable place to call
by-introducing rent stabilization
legislation to stop unjustifiable rent
Dr. Tom
1752 W. Broadway
increases and creating opportunities
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Make a healthy environment a top
by cracking down on pollution,
speeding up recycling programs, and
working with industry, consumer,
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the amount of waste generated from
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Guarantee full democratic rights
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ending age discrimination in government programs
4593 Dunbar
October 16,1991
Cinematic dyke depiction
IT IS NOT enough to see
lesbian content in film.
Often lesbians are minor
characters only included as
sexual exotica or deviants,
and stereotypes or inaccu*
rately constructed images
are created for the heterosexual gaze.
Kawashima Yoshiko:
The Last Princess
of Manchuria
Hong Kong
October 18, Starlight,
My Father is Coming
Three films I saw this
weekend presented dissimilar images of lesbians.
Kawashima Yoshiko:
The Last Princess of Manchuria is the story about the
bisexual spy in Bertolueci's
film The Last Emperor
(seen sucking Joan Chen's
toes). Played by Anita Mui,
the character wears a
tailored man's suit, a
commander's uniform, and
a traditional Chinese man's
outfit in various scenes, but
her character is not developed as a bisexual.
In her one intimate
scene with a woman,
Kawashima Yoshiko is
depicted as manipulative
and deceptive; as a spy, she
is sexually unscrupulous
and will do anything for
political gain. The character
is emotionally touched only
by men.
Screenwriter Ii Bik-
Wah and director Pong
ling-Ching do not portray
Kawashima Yoshiko as a
woman who relates to
women emotionally and
sexually. The film inadequately represents bisexuality as cross-dressing.
In comparison, Percy
Adlon's film Salmonberries,
which features k.d. lang in
her cinematic debut, is a
preferable representation of
a lesbian.
However, under closer
inspection tang's character
Kotzebue (an orphan named
after the Alaskan town she
lives in) is simply a social
outcast, although she is
described as "an androgynous half-Inuit, half-white
Salmonberries is about
Kotzebue's search for
identity and her relationship with the town librarian,
a German refugee named
Roswitha (played by Rosel
Zech), who she perceives as
her only source of personal
Adlon (who also directed
Bagdad Cafe) says his work
is about breaking down
barriers. In Salmonberries,
the 56-year-old German
director depicts the sexual
aspect as a natural development of affection.
However, Adlon does not
directly examine lesbian
Monika Treut, who
directed The Virgin
Machine, establishes the
most convincing and
positive lesbian images in
her film My Father is
The central character
Vicky is neither married
(her gay roommate poses
as her husband) nor a
Successful actress, as she
has led her father to
believe, and she must face
the consequences of his
visit to New York.
Although Vicky is
ambiguously sketched as a
lesbian, Treut effectively
develops her as a character
making choices about her
lesbian self. Vicky initiates
a sexual relationship with
Lisa, her lesbian friend.
Lisa works as a cook in
the same restaurant as
Vicky, tells of a troubled
relationship with her
girlfriend, and faces the
challenges of a new relationship with Vicky.
Lisa's character, who
is explicitly a lesbian, best
illustrates the difference
between the depictions of
lesbian images by directors
Fong Ling-Ching, Percy
Adlon, and Monika Treut.
Treut validly recognizes the lesbian character. Lisa's choices are not
shown as experimental—
she is emotionally and
socially stable, and her
lesbian identity is acknowledged as essential to
her life.
Egoyan: do not
by Ted Ing
ATOM EGOYAN is arguably
■the most important
Canadian director of our time.
His Family Viewing Series
trilogy (Next of Kin, Family
Viewing, Speaking Parts) has
provoked society to reexamine its
relationship to television. His
new film, The Adjuster recently
screened in the Vancouver Film
Festival is scheduled for general
Did you ever attend film
No. I went to U of T and I
was studying International
Relations, but there was a very
active film club. There was all
this amazing equipment and I
was probably one ofthe few
people using it, so it became like
a film school. I spent most of my
time doing that, so by the end of
my time there I found that this
was really what I wanted to do.
You've said that you didn't
like festivals because they
tend to put your films in the
limelight and you like to have
people discover your film.
It's not that I have an
objection to festivals. Ifs just
that I have an objection to the
way this particular film has built
up this hype. A lot of people who
go to see it, have heard about it
and read about it, and in some
ways, makes the seeing of it
secondary. I find that very, very
bizarre because when you make
a film—and a film like this
especially—the way it's constructed is to allow the viewer to
really put together pieces like a
puzzle and thaf s part of the
energy ofthe viewing. But if you
know exactly what's going to be
happening you're almost wanting
it to happen and get it over with
and I think it changes the
experience ofthe film in a very
fundamental way.
Are you trying to break out of
making an "Atom Egoyan
You always dream that you
can surprise yourself, but if you
Scott Frank has a1
very good year
by Morgan Maenling
) NE OF the highlights of
the Vancouver Film
Festival was listening to Scott
Frank, the American screenwriter of "Little Man Tate" and
"Dead Again", as well as other
screenwriters who spoke on the
"Industry Initiatives" panel on
writing for the global market.
Asked how he first started
writing Frank said, "I used to
read a lot when I was a kid...and
I used to get in a lot of trouble
I for making up stories. One day I
was at school and I was telling
another story...the teacher called
up my father.
I "When I came home that
1 night, my father took me into his
study and took two books off the
bookshelf. He set them down side
by side on a table. He pointed to
one book and said "This ... is
Fiction." He pointed to the other
book and said "This ... is Non-
Fiction ... CAN YOU TELL THE
"Shortly after, I started
writing my stories in a journal."
Other panel members
included Canadian Phil Savath,
screenwriter/producer of The
Outside Chance of Maximillian
Glick. "Always remember why
you are telling me this story,...is
it compelling?...Does it make me
"You can't do good work for
bad people," said Canadian
screenwriter Steve Lucas. "But
remember the movie industry is
literally starving for good
A final word from Scott
Frank, "Don'* compromise,...be
careful. Dm't sell to the first
person w ho offers you money."
have a vision or a voice you can't,
help but speak that way. I get
scripts all the time and people •»
say, "Atom, it'd be really great if
you would direct this." I start
working with it and I realize that
I understand everything that the
movie is about and I get bored
with it. ''
With the structures ofthe v.
films that Tm making there are
elements that make it mysterious even to me. You have to just
wait to see what the final
alchemy of these scenes put
together is going to be. The
Adjuster is very much a film
that's structured to allow you
enter a very weird reverie where
you're aware of these images and
you're aware of these characters
but somehow you're not allowed
to identify with them like in a    1
conventional film where you
want to be like this person or y<5i
want to be with this person.
People living on the
edge is an
interesting concept-^
the edge of what? In
The Adjuster, I think
it's the edge of a
normal existence.
* ■
The first few minutes ofthe
film were very confusing and
I got the impression that you
were trying to hide something
in the confusion—that maybe
there was apart of you in
there we weren't allowed to ,
see yet.
The great thing about a film
experience as opposed to television is that people are sort of
committed to being there for a
while. Whaf s the great attraction about hooking them in the
first ten minutes? They're not   "*
channel flipping. If someone has
Adam Hann-Byrd is Little RMn Fred Tai
mom. Fun for all the famW. this Is a In
underscored by exa-nmlng societal vai
your family or classroom has been wai
October 16,1991 theUbyssey
Terry Morgan, of the Bonaparte Indian Band, protests with Cache Creek residents united against the Imposition
of Vancouver's garbage problem on the town.
<.'*.*    ,      ,& ^sj
** .   "«. f     '
From "Conspiracy of Legislation:
the Suppression of India n Rights
in Canada,"by Chief JoeMathias
and Gary R. Yabsley
The recent escalation of aboriginal rights issues and litigation in British Columbia has
prompted an oft-repeated argument from those who oppose the
recognition of any Indian interests in land in this province.
This argument basically
asserts that First Nations did
nothing over the past century to
protect their rights and should
therefore be barred at this late
date from claiming these rights.
Indians have, the argument goes,
"slept on their rights."
In truth, the Indian assertion of aboriginal title has never
ceased. The historical record is
clear on this fact. This persistence has characterized Indian
relations in this province despite
an array of Federal and Provincial legislation specifically designed to eliminate Indian rights
by denying them access to both
legal and political institutions.
Upon examination, these laws
can be seen to be the root cause
of much ofthe injustice and inequity that continues to permeate the Indian presence in
Canada. By any just standards
these laws are offensive.
RIGHTS [finally repealed in
(1) Federal Legislation
...(j) Canada Elections Act,
R.S.C. 1952, C. 23, s. 14
"14.(2) The following persons are disqualified from voting at an election and incapable
of being registered as electors
and shall not vote nor be so
registered, that is to say,
(e) every Indian, as defined
in the Indian Act, ordinarily
resident on a reserve, unless,
(i) he was a member of His
Majesty's Forces during World
War I or World War II, or was a
member ofthe Canadian Forces
who served on active service
subsequent to the 9th day of
September, 1950, or
(ii) he executed a waiver, in
a form prescribed by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, of exemptions under the
Indian Act from taxation on and
in respect of personal property,
and subsequent to the execution
of such waiver a writ has issued
ordering an election in any
electoral district;"
more on page 3
First Nations science students:
by Suzanne Johnson and Joanne Nelson'
Where are you?
There are several programs
on campus that bring Natives together, such as NITEP, the Native
Law Program and TsTtel, but until
recently there has been nothing to
unite the Native science students.
Last April, this problem was solved
when the first Canadian chapter
of AISES—American Indian Science and Engineering Society—
was formed.
AISES is a non-profit, professional and educational organization founded in 1977 in the United
States. Their principle mission is
to improve Native North American
education and to increase the
number of American Indian scientists and engineers. AISES encourages American Indian youth
to enter the world of science and
engineering while preserving their
rich cultural heritage.
AISES student chapter members network with other students
and professionals, which provides
for the opportunity of employment
or advancement in his/her chosen
field. AISES students also support
each other socially, emotionally
and academically in their pursuit
of a university education.
Last April, efforts to start the
first Canadian student chapter at
UBC began. Over the course ofthe
summer term, contact was lost with
many ofthe new members in spite
of posting flyers, making phone
calls, sending mail-outs and ad-
vertisingmeetings in The Ubyssey.
With an estimated enrollment of
Native students in the faculties of
Science, Engineering, Nursing and
Medicine being less than 50, it is
difficult to make contact on a
campus this size.
However, AISES-UBC was
formed and since our current
members are mostly in the third
and fourth year, the main concern
is now recruitment of young, motivated first and second year students who will ensure the future
exi stence ofthe student chapter on
Five year "cap" on
Native post-secondary
education funding could
result in protests
A three-day meeting of Indian chiefs and education
administrators in Vancouver concluded October 9 with
threats of further protest actions unless the federal government removes a five-year 'cap' on Indian post-secondary
education budgets in BC and provides funding based on the
needs of Indian students.
The meeting was organized at the behest ofthe bands by
the Union of BC Indian Chiefs.
The session was attended by the president ofthe Union
BC Indian Chiefs, chief Saul Terry, the Department of
Indian Affairs' acting director general for BC, Jim Fleury,
and regional director of education, Juanita Tupper.
this campus.
To join AISES-UBC and get
the opportunity to meet other
Native Science students with
similar goals here on campus, interested people can phone either
Iain Dickey at 261-6538 or Joanne
Nelson at 430-9990. There will be
a meeting on October 17 at 12:30,
in the NITEP Hut (behind Scarfe)
which new members are more than
welcome to attend!
The Native Indian
Student Union
wants you!
by Ellen Antolna
The Native Indian Student
Union (NISU) is an active organization on the UBC campus which
serves the First Nations students.
NISU has been operating for
over a decade with goals and objectives changing each year according to the needs of students on
campus. However, one main goal
has stayed with NISU over the
years: to offer a support system to
the First Nations students in all
faculties. This is accomplished
through social events for adults
and children alike. Along with social events, NISU does fund-raising for its First Nations graduates
from all faculties.
To unite First Nations students at UBC this year, NISU must
become a representative body of
First Nations students from all
faculties on campus. By becoming
united, we will become a more efficient committee of committed
At NISlTs first meeting, the
annual salmon potluck/barbecue
and the Longboat race were dis
cussed. We have started preparing
for our annual salmon potluck/
barbecue, which will take place on
October 18 at the Scarfe lounge
from 5pm to 8pm. This will give us
an opportunity to get to know one
another, while fund-raising for the
annual children's Christmas party.
NISU has also joined the
Longboat race, which will take
place on October 26. If you would
like to participate in volunteering
your time for the upcoming pot-
luck, or if you would like to join in
or support and cheer the Longboat
race, drop in at the NITEP Hut—
6375 Biological Sciences Road.
After the salmon potluck/
barbecue we wouldlike to start the
elections for president, vice-president, treasurer and secretary, and
hopefully get a good representation of all the faculties which currently have First Nations students.
So, start thinking about getting
involved with the NISU committee.
NISU will only be as good as the
effort we put into it. All First Nations participants welcome!
October 16,1991 Cultural history in the classifieds:
the selling of First Nations culture as collectables
by Usa Tench
432 B.C.: After seven years of gruelling labour, the crowning glory of
Ancient Greek architecture was
completed. It was called the temple
of Athena Parthenos, otherwise
known as the Parthenon, a holy
shrine worshipped by all people of
Athens, and others visiting from
beyond the city walls.
1798 AJ>.:Lord Elgin of England
became the Ambassador to the
Sultan of Turkey. He saw it within
his writ to make a diplomatic mis~
sion, "beneficial to the progress of
Fine Arts in Great Britain," (his
own words)
1812-Lord Elgin had removed most
of the exterior marble sculptures
from the Parthenon, and transported them to England, with
labour provided by Greek slaves.
1983: Melina Mercouri, Greek
Minister of Science and Culture,
asked the British Government to
return the marbles, saying, "They
are the symbol and blood and soul
ofthe Greek people."
1991: Parthenon marbles remain
in a special wing of the British
At the urging of Jesuit missionaries, the Canadian government
banned Native potlatch ceremonies in 1884. People were arrested
in the midst of religious ritual and
their cultural objects were confiscated. Potlatches were not banned
after 1951, but since then the law
has not been repealed. It is still
within our federal criminal code.
So what happened to all the objects procured in these raids? In
the last couple of years some pieces
have been returned to Native bands
of British Columbia, after long legal battles. (Some remained in a
collection in the Royal Ontario
Museum until 1988.) However,
cultural objects from these confiscations still exist in the Museum ofthe American Indian
in New York. This museum refuses to give
representatives of
the Kwagiutl a
For the people
ofthe First Nations,   these
objects are not
crafts of these
artisans, nor
are they personal     belongings.
These objects
are pieces of
their    heritage, their culture, their reli-
gion, and their
soul. These objects are not merely
art, they are cultural
possessions used in
holy ritual. Just as across
is the symbol of a Christian's
faith, such is the pipe or mask
to the First Nations.
The museums have become the
grounds on which battles are waged
between governments, archaeologists, and representatives of the
First Nations. Who is responsible,
and who are they responsible to?
The struggle of the people of the
First Nations to regain their past
is a new battle, and is met, with
new animosity in certain sectors.
On the antiquities market, an
original Northwest Coast mask will
sell for as much as $10,000. Bigger
objects will bring even more money.
This is a lucrative business, and a
museum losing a collection of
Northwest Coast objects can face
major financial repercussions. On
the other hand, there is more than
money at stake. The history of a
people is being bought and sold
without their permission.
"We need to find a
Thus says Ann Stevenson, Collections Manager at the UBC Museum of Anthropology, and anthropological archaeologist. The
MOA has an open mandate regarding cultural materials of First
Nations' People, which means cultural objects can be stored in the
museum's collections in several
different ways. Besides purchasing pieces, the MOA works out
agreements to maintain and protect pieces under extended or permanent loan from native bands or
individuals. The pieces can be retrieved from the museum by the
owner at any time, but in the
meantime, the MOA provides safe
storage and security for the objects.
The museum supports gradual
change with respect to repatriation of objects, with the goal of
mutual agreement through negotiations. However, these policies
were not in place until recently.
Only within the last ten years has
an open dialogue been set up with
First Nations People, prompted by
their own concerns, says
Stevenson. "We are trying to open
up the decision-making process.
[The MOA] wants to incorporate
the perspective of the community
that they serve."
Since the MOA is a university
institution and serves primarily
as a teaching institution, their objectives are quite clear. "Our mandate is facilitating access to the
collections for the general public,
but specifically for the originating
culture," says Stevenson. Incorporating Native input for the showing    of f^^_^^"\  collections,
ever, some-
times leads to disagreement. Although Michael Ames, Director of
the MOA, says, "Native peoples
have the right to determine how
they're going to be represented,"
museums rarely have the capital
resources to change their exhibits
to reflect Native views.
For example, many Native people
have criticized the MOA on their
visible storage facilities, because
the different bands of the Northwest Coast have been grouped together under antiquated headings.
The people would like to be split up
into bands, if
not into clans
or families. But
how far can the
museum afford
to go? As
says, "At what
level, with the
resources we
have, can we
make splits?"
would like to
recognize the
groups, and she
says the only
way the museum can do
this is through
open communication with the
Native groups.
She says, "We
must first be
aware of the
problems. Only
then can we
find solutions,
with both practicality and creativity."
Greg Brass
Greg Brass has worked at
the Museum of Anthropology for
six years. He has worked at the
Canadian Museum of Civilization
(CMC) in Hull, Quebec, and had
an internship with the Museum of
Natural History in Washington,
He is also one ofthe Saulteaux of
As a boy, Brass was confused
about his Native identity. However, he did always want to be an
archaeologist. At age 17, he got a
job at the MOA through Madeleine
Rowan ofthe Native Youth Project.
He says that through working with
her, he gained confidence about
his Native ancestry. He credits her
as a mentor, but, "not a savior;
working at the museum gave me a
sense of identity and exposure to
who I am, what I am."
There is a dualism to his
work at the museum. As a
person ofthe First Nations, he recognizes
the anger others
have for museums
and what they
represent. For the
First Nations,
museums do
represent the
celebration of
conquest, colonization, and
the elimination
of their culture.
On the other
hand, says Brass,
museums provide
education to the
public, and education is one way to inform people about different cultures.
"Museums should learn to
act as facilitators rather than
interpreters. There is a glass case
between them and the visitor. We
should allow people their own interpretation," he says. Museums
often have trouble with the interpretation of cultural objects. In fact,
sometimes the cultures get confused in the process. Don Bain, coordinator of the Native Youth
Project at the MOA, recalls an exhibit at the Langley Museum where
the objects of different Native cultures were displayed together.
"Moreover, many people of the
First Nationsleel that some objects shouldn't be displayed in
public, because ofthe rituals associated with them. But at the same
time, Brass says, "Pipes should
not be in a museum, but I'm not
going to rescue them. For all I
know, they could be tourist items."
Brass worked on an exhibit for
the MO A's Anthropology 431 class,
a course in museum work. His
project was to provide an exhibit
which came into the museum's
possession in 1953. "We found a
letter in the accession records concerning the acquisition of the
mask,"he recalls, "We couldn'tfind
the original owner ofthe mask, but
we found his half-brother in Port
Hardy, and discovered what the
mask had meant to him and his
family. Behind each piece is a personal story, a community story,
and a cultural story." Brass incorporated these stories into his exhibit, and it went over really well.
The curator and staff were very
impressed. But it is his opinion
that the museum was scared that
because Brass had dug up old emotions concerning an object, repatriation of that object might have
become an issue.
When he worked at the CMC,
Brass found other problems within
the museum structure. He was
supposed to hire Native students
to work on Native exhibits in the
museum. One requirement for hiring students at the CMC was that
the candidate had to be bilingual—
in English and French. There was
a candidate he wanted to hire, but
couldn't, because she only spoke
English and Cree. Although she
was bilingual, and spoke a language that would help her relate to
other Native people visiting the
exhibit, it didn't count.
Although the museum systems
and bureaucracies have their
problems, Greg Brass and Don
Bain are optimistic about their
Brass tells the story of Pete
Catches Sr., an Oglala Sioux
Medicine Man he met in Washington while working at the
Smithsonian. "We were in the attic [ofthe museum] watching him
talk, and he was mourning over
the objects. He said they had religious value and medicine still, and
should be in the community. The
objects were dying. But he also
said that he knew that at least the
pieces were being taken care of
Incorporating the communities
ofthe First Nations into the museum decision-making process is
the first step. The next step is
learning from each other, and
making use of mutual education.
RIGHTS (Continued)
(2) Provincial Legislation
(a) [Municipal Elections Acts
up to 1949 prohibited Indians
from voting.] Municipal Elections
Act, R.S.B.C. 1948, s. 4:
"4. No Chinese, Japanese, or
Indians shall be entitled to vote
at any municipal election for the
election of a Mayor, Reeve, Alderman, or Councillor."
(b) [Provincial Elections Acts
up to 1949 prohibited Indians
from voting.]
(1) Federal Legislation
(a) Indian Act, 1880 as
amended, S.C. 1884, C. 27 (47
Vict.) s. 3.
"3. Every Indian or other
person who engages in or assists
in celebrating the Indian festival
known as the "Potlatch" or in the
Indian dance known as the
"Tamanawas" is guilty of a
misdemeanour, and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term
of not more than six nor less than
two months in any gaol [jail] or
other place of confinement; and
any Indian or other person who
encourages, directly orindirectly,
an Indian or Indians to get up
such a festival or dance, or to
celebrate the same, or who shall
assist in the celebration of the
same is guilty of a like offence,
and shall be liable to the same
(b) Indian Act, 1886, s. 114
(amended S.C. 1895, C. 35, s. 6).
(c) Indian Act, R.S.C. 1906,
C. 81, s. 149.
(d) Indian Act, R.S.C. 1927,
C. 98, s. 140.
"140. Every Indian or other
person whoengages in, or assists
in celebrating or encourages either directlyorindirectlyanother
to celebrate any Indian festival,
dance or other ceremony of which
the giving away or paying or giving back of money, goods or articles of any sort forms a part, or
is a feature, whether such gift of
money, goods or articles takes
place before, at, or after the celebration ofthe same, or who engages or assists in any celebration
or dance of which the wounding
or mutilation of the dead or living body of any human being or
animal forms a part or is a feature, is guilty of an offence and is
liable on summary conviction to
imprisonment for a term not
exceeding six months and not
less than two months.
2. Nothing in this section
shall be construed to prevent the
holding of any agricultural show
or exhibition or the giving of
prizes for exhibits thereat.
3. Any Indian in the province of Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta, or British Columbia, or
in the Territories who participates in any Indian dance outside
the bounds of his own reserve, or
who participates in any show,
exhibition, performance, stampede or pageant in aboriginal
costume without the consent of
the Superintendent General or
his authorized agent, and any
person who induces or employs
any Indian to take part in such
dance, show, exhibition, performance, stampede or pageant, or
induces any Indian to leave his
reserve or employs any Indian
for such a purpose, whether the
dance, show, exhibition, stampede or pageant has taken place
or not, shall on summary conviction be liable to a penalty not
exceeding twenty-five dollars, or
to imprisonment for one month,
or to both penalty and imprisonment."        more on page 4
October 16,1991
(1) Federal Legislation
(a) Indian Act, R.S.C. 1927,
s. 141.
"141. Every person -who,
without the consent ofthe Superintendent General expressed in writing, receives,
obtains, solicits or requests
from an Indian any payment or
contribution for the purpose of
raising a fund or providing
money for the prosecution of
any claim which the tribe or
band of Indians to which such
Indian belongs, or of which he
is a member, has or is represented to have for the recovery
of any claim or money for the
benefit ofthe said tribe or band,
shall be guilty of an offence and
liable upon summary conviction
for each such offence to a penalty not exceeding two hundred
dollars and not less than fifty
dollars or to imprisonment for
any term not exceeding two
(1) Federal Legislation
(a) Indian Act, S.C. 1876,
C. 18, s. 70 (re Manitoba and
"70. No Indian or non-
treaty Indian, resident in the
province of Manitoba, the
North-West Territories or the
territory of Keewatin, shall be
held capable of having acquired
or acquiring a homestead or
pre-emption right to a quarter
section, or any portion of land
in any surveyed or unsurveyed
lands in the said province of
Manitoba, the North-West
Territories or the territory of
Keewatin, or the right to share
in the distribution of any lands
allotted to half-breeds, subject
to the following exceptions:...."
(2) Colonial And Provincial
(a) [1861 and 1970 right to
pre-emption of lands open only
to British subjects; exempted
only reserves and settlements]
(b) Land Ordinance, 1970
R.S.B.C. 1871, C. 144, s. 3.
"3. From and after the date
of the proclamation in this
Colony of Her Majesty's assent
to this Ordinance, any male
person being a British Subject,
ofthe age of eighteen years or
over, may acquire the right to
pre-empt any tract of unoccupied, unsurveyed, and unreserved Crown Lands (not being
an Indian settlement) not exceeding three hundred and
twenty acres in extent in that
portion ofthe Colony situate to
the northward and eastward of
the Cascade or Coast Range of
Mountains, and one hundred
and sixty acres in extent in the
restof the Colony. Provided that
such right of pre-emption shall
not be held to extend to any of
the Aborigines of this Continent, except to such as shall
have obtained the Governor's
special permission in writing
to that effect."
...(g) Land Act, R.S.B.C.
1888, C. 66, s. 14.
"14. The occupation of this
Act shall mean a continuous
bona fide personal residence of
the pre-emptor, his agent, or
family, on land recorded by such
more on page 5
Like the golden eagle
that is its namesake,
UBC's Ts"kel programme
dares to fly higher, see
farther, and pursue its
elusive visions over a
remote horizon.
by Lynne Jorgesen
AS ONE OF the programmes
.under the wing ofthe First
Nations House of Learning,
Ts*kel has offered a Masters
degree in Educational Administration since 1984. Five years
later, Social and Educational
Studies and Curriculum and
Instruction were added and
Ts"kel expanded to the doctoral
level in these departments.
In terms of numbers and
diversity ofthe students it has
attracted, no other university in
the country offers anything
remotely like the TsTsel
One thing that makes Ts*kel
unique is that it is designed to
provide students with challenging
course content tailored to their
own cultures, and to develop First
Nations leadership skills. It is the
only programme offering advanced degrees in the field of
education to First Nations
students in a First Nations
context at a major university in
A few Canadian universities
in areas with high First Nations
populations have begun developing similar programmes based on
this model. But the majority
prefer instead to encourage First
Nations students to pursue
advanced degrees in mainstream
programmes, or to offer degrees
in specialized areas of First
Nations to all students.
A total of 18 universities
across the country surveyed for
this article were able to identify
varying numbers of First Nations
graduate students over the years.
However, because ofthe lack of
freestanding programmes for
these students, nothing comes
close to paralleling the benchmark set by Ts"kel.
Ofthe 14 First Nations
individuals to obtain doctoral and
masters degrees at UBC between
1986 and 1990, ten were from the
Ts'<kel programme. In May 1991
the total was 15 Ts*kel graduates.
Since its inception in 1984, a
total of 36 students have enrolled
in Ts*kel. As of 1990, only three of
that number have permanently
discontinued their studies. In
part the low attrition rate can be
seen as a direct result of the
relevance ofthe programme
content, the maintaining of high
academic standards and the
calibre ofthe students entering
the programme. It is a result of
the mutually caring, supportive
relationships between students
an First Nations faculty.
A great deal of geographic
and tribal diversity is reflected in
the makeup ofthe student body:
from New Brunswick to British
Columbia, Alaska to Guatemala,
First Nations graduate students
have been drawn to UBC. What
brings them to this campus
perched on the edge ofthe misty
Ts*kel is part of existing
graduate studies programmes in
the Faculty of Education adapted
to include First Nations interpretations of concepts and approaches. It is folly integrated
into UBC's Department's of
Administrative, Adult and Higher
Education, Social and Educational Studies and the Centre for
the Study of Curriculum and
Development. It also maintains a
degree o cultural autonomy in
what is known as the Ts"kel core
course, which reflect the mandate
ofthe First Nations House of
Ts"kel spreads its
The House of Learning itself
is not a faculty or a course of
studies leading. It is part ofthe
president's office and exists to
bring relevance to existing
university programmes for First
Nations students and to encourage them to pursue degrees in
fields that havent attracted them
in the past.
TsTcel was developed in 1983
by professor Verna J. Kirkness,
UBCs Director of Native Education, as a logical progression of
the Native Indian Teacher
Education Program (NITEP),
which has been offering a B.Ed, to
First Nations teachers since 1974.
Many NITEP graduates were
being offered important leadership positions before they felt
ready to assume the responsibility.
"There (was) a need for a
programme like TsTcel for along
time," professor Kirkness said.
"This programme has opened
doors for our student,(and) there
was a need to develop a
programme which would meet the
needs of First Nations students.
We decided right from the start
that admission must be the same
for the Native as well the non-
Native student."
T"kel is only one of many
doors opened by Professor
Kirkness in a career distinguished by innovation and
achievement in the field of First
Nations education. She joined the
Faculty of UBC in 1981 as the
Supervisor if NITEP, and was
appointed Director of Native
Education in 1983.
Prior to that, Professor
Kirkness earned her B A, B.Ed.
and M.Ed, from the University of
Manitoba and has experience as a
teacher, principal counsellor
school supervisor education
director for both the Manitoba
and National Indian Brotherhoods, a researcher for an M.P.
and a private consultant. Therefore, it is almost an understatement to say that Professor
Kirkness' wealth of experience
and knowledge has played a
significant part in making Ts*kel
what it is.
Dr. Jean Hills, Head ofthe
Department of Administrative,
Adult and Higher Education, also
cites professor Kirkness' talent for
fundraising as a clear factor in
the prestige and profile achieved
by Ts*kel in seven short years.
"Her fundraising efforts have
brought in a considerable amount
of money to the University," Dr.
Hills says. "The construction of
the First Nations Longhouse(to be
completed in Spring 1992) will
provide a highly visible centre for
the First Nations people to
participate in a wider number of
programmes at the university."
Of Ts"kel itself, Dr. Hills
comments. "The programme is
succeeding very well from our of
view, Fm happy to say. It has
grown steadily, and a number of
graduates have gone into responsible positions. It provides a clear
demonstration that the route to
higher education is open to First
Nation people; that they can
succeed as well as anyone else in
a graduate programme."
Dr. Graham Kelsey was
involved with screening applicants during the early years of
Ts*kel and explains that applicants are screened on the same
basis as other students. He had
this to say^fcout admissions in
general: "admission of graduate
students can be tricky, because
you have to have a certain grade
point average and meet other
"But in education, the
students tend to come back years
after they've gotten their first
degree. When they were originally at university, they didn't
care about marks, but they've
gone out into the world and done
wonderful things, and now they
want their Master's degree. So,
Fve had a lot of experience in
examining applications to see if
their overall record(marks plus
other contributions) is up to our
normal standards. This applies to
the entire population, not just
First Nations people."
The students share offices,
attend courses and compete with
non-Indian students for roughly
two-thirds of their studies. In this
sense, TsTcel can be said to be
part ofthe mainstream graduate
programme. The other third of
their activities are taken up by
course and materials developed
specifically for future administrators and leaders in First Nations
At the fifth year level courses
include historical and current
developments in First Nations
education, gaining simulated
experience in a First Nations
elementary school and placement
in a school setting.
One critical and fascinating
requirement ofthe programme
has been to expand the base of
existing literature on First
Nations education. Prior to this,
most academic research and
papers were done by and large by
non-Natives. So far from the
outset, Ts*kel students were
encouraged to select topics for
assignments and major papers
which would enrich the available
literature on First Nations
education and leadership.
Not only is this creating a
knowledge base for future
generations, it is establishing a
new body of academic thought
and research based on world view
that was never before formally
accorded much validity or
credibility. For example, Rosalyn
Ing"s major paper, completed in
1990, dealt with the devastating
spiritual, emotional, physical and
mental effects of Indian residential schools on generations of
First Nations people.
This Cree woman from The
Pas Band in Manitoba ( now an
instructor at Vancouver's Native
Education Centre) attended
residential school herself, a
circumstance that some say could
have made it difficult to achieve
an appropriate distance from her
subject matter. But Ing proved
herself capable of rising to the
"We studied Etzione's theory
of compliance," Ing says. "I was
able to take and transfer it to the
Firet Nations experience. Using
my own experience, I could
analyze what was wrong with
residential schools in a clinical,
academic way and plug it into
those holes or boxes that they
have in academic theory. I
eiijoyed that, it told me what was
wrong with the system."
Oscar Kawagley, a Yupiak
Eskimo doctoral candidate from
Alaska, intends to research topic
previously inaccessible to Western thought for his Ph.D.
"I want to find out how
Yupiak people have coped with
and articulated the inner section
between Yupiak and western
world views," Kawagley says.
This includes defining the values
they believe are important to
retain in a life lived under
predominantly Western control. "I
was asked in class what I hoped to
bring back to Alaska from UBC,"
Kawagley continues. "My answer is
that I want to leave behind the so     i
called objectivity I was trained to
work in."
His ambition is to go home and
define objectivity in Yupiak terms.
"I can't see (humans) putting
ourselves in the place of God and
analyzing something. How can
information not become a part of
you when you're looking so closely at-~
it and mulling over it?"
He concludes: "what the
western concept of objectivity has
done is to excise spirituality from
our existence. But our spirituality
gives us what I like to call gentility,   '
the ability to be polite and tactful     v
because we are at ease with our own
world. Being close to nature and
spirituality gives you that quality.
Or so this Yupiak thinks!"
Andres Lopez, a member ofthe
Mam tribe of Mayan Indians and      i
originally from Guatemala, received
a $15,000 grant from the Interna-    *
tional Development Research
Centre to do
research in
Bolivia on
traditional ,
among the
Quechua and |
people. This
formed the
basis of his
major paper,
completed in
looked at
how these
to the
passing on of
tradition and
culture, as
well as how
they might
be applied to
a contemporary educational
setting. No
doubt the
students he's
presently instructing at the Nicola
Valley Institute of Technology in      *
Merrit, BC are receiving the indirect
benefits of his research.
Felicity Jules, a Secwepemc
from Kamloops decided to study the
cultural factors that make First
Nations leadership unique for her
1987 major paper. Her research
included live interviews with
prominent First Nations leaders,
including the late George Manuel.
"It was very different way of
doing a paper at the time," Jules
says now. "(Students) just didn't use
interviews of videos as reference
materials." She found her subjects    -
had about six things in common,
including a belief that First Nations
leaders must be guided by their
people rather than try to dictate to
them. But in the self-effacing
manner she identified among her
subjects, Jules then qualifies her
"I wouldn't want people to think
my paper is the definitive one on
Indian leadership styles, because I
think more research has to be done.
Someone should look at the younger
leaders, for example. There will be
things in common, but this is
subject to change. Thaf s fine,
because our cultures aren't static—
they change and evolve."
Ts*kel itself has been evolving.
October 16,1991 wings
In 1989-90, it began offering degrees
at the doctoral level. This development includes a ground breaking
agreement signed in November, 1990
-iny UBC and the University of
Alaska/Fairbanks that creates
"opjrortunities for exchange between
students and faculties of both
Alaskan Native doctoral candidates pursuing degrees not available
jrtUAF can complete their studies at
UBC and Ts*kel graduate students
Swm UBC can now take specified
courses at UAF. Faculty are also
encouraged to exchange teaching
responsibilities and to enter into
collaborative research endeavors. Of
the three First Nations doctoral
"students on campus for the 1990-91
^acjulemic year, two are from UAF.
Another Alaskan student is back
home this year, conducting research.
All of them are enrolled in the
Department of Social and Educational Studies.
.—    Dr. Ray Barnhardt is at UBC on
sabbatical leave from
they can do as good a job as the
principal or administrator. So we
are looking at graduate studies as
an important next step to fill
those leadership roles."
This observation holds true
for the Canadian situation as
well, Barnhardt points out.
Ts*kel students and graduates readily agree on the importance of enhancing and undergraduate or Bachelors degree
with a Masters.
Deanna Nyce, a Nisga'a from
Gitwinkishlkw (which she
translates as "Place ofthe
Lizards," a possible Nisga'a
reference to the existence ofthe
dinosaurs) can't recommend
strongly enough that more First
Nations people get their Masters
"It really bothers your
experience much more than a
Bachelors," Nyce says. "It opens
you to other concepts and ways of
doing things. Ts*kel has an extra
cultural dimension that's really
critical, because it enabled us to
work in a number of different
cultures—First Nations as well as
others. If we want to make
changes in the curriculum and
make it accessible to non-Native
people who don't know First
Nations issues, it's important to
be able to know
~<l visiting professor. He has been
..helping coordinate the agreement
between the two universities.
"The resources available here
and the support provided for our
students make this a very good place
to be associated with," Barnhardt
—says. "The programmes and services
here match what we're trying to do in
"The issues facing First Nations
people in BC—land claims, self-
government, education, health—are
very similar in nearly all respects to
,^/hat Alaskan Natives are dealing
with. The time frame may be
v different, the legal and legislative
circumstances may differ, but the
underlying issues are the same and
there are more similarities between
Alaska and BC than there are
between Alaska and the lower 48
*" States."
_ j.     But Barnhardt emphasizes that
the most important aspect ofthe
exchange programme is the importance of graduate studies for First
Nations people generally.
"In Alaska, Native teaching
- >graduates have been teaching in
their communities for a number of
years now. In that time, they've seen
a lot of other teachers and administrators come and go, while they've
been a steady force in their schools.
Many have reached the point where
how to do that."
"There's a different perspective at that level," says Jean
York, a NlTtapamux who will
graduate in 1991. "It is hard
work, and higher expectations are
placed on you, but you're validated more. If s like going to a
different world and creating a
whole new understanding,
because it connects things you
learn in undergraduate studies."
Opal Charters and
Okanagan/NlTcapamux also
graduating in 1991 says Ts*kel
equips people to let go ofthe trees
to perceive the forest.
"It gave us the opportunity to
reflect on what we should be
striving for to guide the education
of our students," Charter says. "In
every course we were given the
opportunity to voice why we
should be the ones to educate our
own children.
"The Mandate ofthe provincial school system is to teach the
three R's, not to help us deal with
the many social issues facing our
people. But that has to come from
us, because ifs our people who
are dying, not theirs. We know
better than anyone what our
problems are and how to deal
with them. Plus we still have
threads to our cultures and
languages. We're still aware of
and practice our traditional
Jean York was hired as the
principal of an elementary school
in Lytton, BC before she finished
the major paper required for her
degree. This makes her one of
very few First Nations principals
working in the BC public school
system. York completed her paper
in between meeting her administrative responsibilities.
Opal Charters also became a
principal before she completed
her paper. She returned home to
take over the N"Kwala School
operated by the Upper Nicola
Band at Douglas Lake, BC. She is
taking an active role in helping
the community assume control
over its own education.
Ethel Gardner graduated in
1986 to become head ofthe
Department of Indian Education
at the Saskatchewan Indian
Federated College in Regina. In
1987, she came back to UBC to
assume her current role as
assistant director ofthe First
Nations House of Learning.
A major part of her job is
liaison with the First Nations
community and strengthening the
links between that community
and the university. She also
works with UBC to increase
access and relevance of their
programmes to
First Nations
based on needs
identified by
First Nations
communities, and
promotes existing
programmes (like
NITEP, Native
Law and the
Native Health
Care Professions
through publications and other
She credits
Ts"kel with
giving her an
understanding of
theory as well as
the cross-cultural
skills needed to
act as abridge
between both
In fact, it is one
ofthe stated aims
ofthe Ts*kel
.     programme to
ZJy/7/88 generate greater
exchange and
between the First Nations
students and other students. This
is the only aspect ofthe
programme that has met with
mixed success, and even among
the TsTiel students themselves,
there are differing views on how
well it has worked.
Dr. Jean Hills says: "One
area Fd like to see change is the
degree to which the students are
more fully integrated in terms of
interaction. TsTcel students tend
to remain more separate than we
think they should. I know Verna
Kirkness would like to see greater
acknowledgement for areas of
concern to First Nations people,
which doesn't show up as much in
the non-Ts"kel curriculum as
might be appropriate."
As Ethel Gardner explains it,
the onus is on the First Nations
students to understand their own
as well as non-Native approaches
to basic administration theory, a
requirement not normally placed
on the other students.
In effect, "we have to work
doubly hard, because the First
Nations information isn't there in
a nice package for us to draw
from. So we have double the
workload—to figure it out, put it
in context and relate it to theory,
to see if it fits. But people assume
that because we are Native, we
automatically know the First
Nations teaching style, or
learning style. Thaf s not always
A difference in communication styles can also unintentionally create distance.
"The classes where there
were only Native students were
more interesting for me," Andres
Lopez says in his gently accented
English. "We felt more comfortable somehow. When we were
mixed with the other students the
tendency was we were somehow
out ofthe picture, because we
were not aggressive to speak our
minds. When we were together in
the Ts*kel classes it was a
different atmosphere."
"It is seen as more important
for us to learn non-Native values
and communicate cross-culturally
in non-Native terms rather than
have them learn our values and
make the effort to see a new way
of thinking," is how Oscar
Kawagley puts it. But he wouldn't
want to see a completely segregated programme either.
"(Segregated classes) can be
useful at the beginning, perhaps,
but as students gain background
in teaching and gathering
information, there should be
mixed classes. Non-Natives need
the information as much as we
do, especially if they work in
(isolated) areas with lots of
"Mixed classes worked when
we had the numbers," says Opal
Charters. "We were fortunate in
that there were six of us in the
class one year. Sometimes touchy
issues came up that the other
students couldn't understand. So
we were able to support each
other and educate them together."
It is impossible to be all
things to all people however, and
Ts*kel may not find a short-term,
easy solution. But for the time
being, those who come through
the programme express strong
feelings about retaining some
"We were asked it we wanted
to open the Ts*kel courses to non-
Native people," Felicity Jules
says. "We said no right up front—
we need a "safe environment" to
talk among ourselves. These
courses bring up some deep issues
for First Nations people, and we
need to address these issues in
the forums that are available to
us. Otherwise, we have to spend a
lot of class time re-educating and
sensitizing the other students.
Our education is important, too."
Whatever future direction
the programme may take, by any
criteria Ts*kel graduates have
exceeded expectations, and the
demand for them is high. They
are among some ofthe most
highly educated First Nations
people available in Canada, and
the demand won't be filled in the
foreseeable future.
As Shirley Myran points out,
in the past there was reluctance
on the part of some First Nations
people to push themselves to be
successful, but that is changing:
"At one time people were
afraid to pursue higher education,
because they worked themselves
out of a job by being overqualified
or too high priced," she says. "But
now, thaf s where the jobs are. A
Native person with a Masters
degree will never need to go on
social assistance. The more
education a Native person has,
the more self-sufficient they
become. Thaf s an economic
reality in Canadian society."
To find out more about
Ts"kel, please contact:
The Ts"kel Program
Faculty of Education
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4
TEL: (604) 822-5857
settler; but Indians or
Chinamen shall not be considered agents."
(h) Land Act Amendment
Act, S.B.C. 1892, C. 24, s. 1;
S.B.C. 1893, C. 22, s. 2.
(1) Federal Legislation
(a) Indian Act, S.C. 1880,
C. 28, s. 99(1).
"99.(l)Any Indian who
may be admitted to the degree
of Doctor of medicine, or to any
other degree by any University
of Learning, or who may be
admitted in any Province of
the Dominion to practice law
either as an Advocate or as a
Barrister or Counsellor, or Solicitor or Attorney or to be a
Notary Public, or who may
enter Holy Orders, or who may
be licensed by any denomination of Christians as a Minister
ofthe Gospel, may, upon petition to the Superintendent-
General, ipso facto become and
be enfranchised under the provisions of this Act; and the Superintendent-General may give
him a suitable allotment ofland
from the lands belonging to the
band of which he is a member."
(b) Indian Act Amended,
S.C. 1884, C. 27, s. 16.
(2) Provincial Legislation
(a) [Public Schools Acts up
to and including the Actof 1948]
"92.(4) Chinese, Japanese, and Indians shall not be
entitled to vote at any school
Reprinted from "Conspiracy of Legislation" by Chief
JoeMathias and Gary Yabsley:
The weight of government
was brought upon Indians to
assimilate. To this end, Indian
children were taken from their
homes and placed in resident! al
schools....They were forcibly
encouraged to become white.
The desire of the non-Indian society to force assimilation on Indians is perhaps best
expressed in section 99(1) of
the Indian Act of 1880. This
section provides for the enfranchisement of any Indian
obtaining a university degree
or becoming a lawyer, priest or
minister. In addition, an Indian so enfranchised could be
rewarded by the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs
with a grant of land from the
reserve lands ofthe band. The
implications of this legislation
are clear. Any Indian aspiring
to an advanced education was
confronted with the loss of his
or her Indian identity and Indian status. The message was
simple: "We will reward you
with Indian land if you give up
your Indian ways."
October IB, 1991
NATIVE SUPPLEMENT/5 ..*.   *%*$*& *> ■•>
/?+ M
OTTAWA(CUP)—The First Nations have been losing a game
called Constitutional Lawfor over
200 years. Itisadirty contest that
has very little to do with justice.
At first glance, the rule s seem
extremely complicated, but it's
really quite simple. In this high-
stakes legal crap game, the dealer
almost always wins.
Now anyone who hasn't had
the good sense to be hiding under
a rock for the last year and a half
knows Brian Mulroney isn't much
of a dealer.
During last June's Meech
Lake fiasco, he figured the deadline hanging over the premiers'
heads would force them to agree
to a constitutional deal embracing Quebec as a "distinct society."
But he didn't count on Manitoba
MLA Elijah Harper, who got to
his feet time after time in the
legislature and quietly said 'no.'
"Pretty please,' Brian's flunkies pleaded, 'the aboriginal
peoples' turn will be next.' But
Harper refused to endorse the lie
of "two founding nations" and
Brian's pressure-cooker world exploded into a million pieces.
Some Canadians applauded
Harper's stand for the wrong reasons—that is, they were against
Quebec's demands. But for the
first time, many others became
aware of the plight of the aboriginal peoples. And in the wake
of the 78-day armed standoff at
Oka, polls showed most felt it was
high time to correct the injustices
of the past.
Humbled, Mulroney promised
to listen next time around. But in
late September, he rolled his
crooked dice again.
like all Canadians, aboriginal peoples look to the Constitution for a reflection of their vision
of Canada and for a definition of
their place within the Canadian
federation," oozes the government's snazzy new 60-page
booklet, "Shaping Canada's Future Together."
Many people will no doubt
consider the federal government's
proposal "to negotiate self-government agreements with the aboriginal peoples" a reasonable
starting point for debate. In fact,
it is merely the latest legal lie
foisted on the Canadian public by
a federal government.
In a nutshell, the government
wants to grant aboriginal people
some ofthe rights that are inherently (and legally) theirs. The
leaders of the country's 600,000
status Indians—those aboriginal
people whose every waking minute
is affected by the federal Indian
Act—call the proposal a "total betrayal."
"I almost want to give up,"
Ovide Mercredi, chief of the Assembly of First Nations, told reporters. "I don't know if it's possible to educate them anymore."
The AFN's position is
straightforward: there is nothing
to negotiate because aboriginal
peoples have an inherent right to
self-government. The government
has only to recognize this explicitly in the constitution, and self-
government can begin to evolve as
different First Nations decide how
they want to exercise their rights.
Understanding the AFN's
stance requires more effort than
Brian Mulroney and Joe Clark—
who both flunked out of Dalhousie
Law School—seem prepared to
Clark told MPs and Senators
last week that Ottawa couldn't
guarantee an inherent right to
self-government for strong legal
reasons related to international
law. You know, tricky lawyer stuff.
Translation: the federal government is afrai d it will be up shit
creek if it explicitly recognizes the
aboriginal right of self-determination.
The report last month of
Manitoba's Aboriginal Justice Inquiry shed a little light on this
tricky lawyer stuff, this international law. En route to concluding
that "Canada's treatment of its
first citizens has been an international disgrace," judges AC.
Hamilton and Murray Sinclair
wrote, "since the beginning ofthe
Age of Discovery, European states
have engaged relentlessly in the
process of divesting indigenous
peoples of their lands, and have
sought to justify and legitimate
this practice through the use of
the doctrines of (international
law). On the whole, domestic
courts have either ignored or
generally misapplied and misinterpreted these doctrines ...
thereby upholding the status quo
of Aboriginal dispossession."
As early as the 16th century,
writers on international law acknowledged the sovereignty of aboriginal nations, and that their
status could be changed only
through negotiation or conquest.
In 1532, Francisco de Vitoria,
one of the "fathers" of international law, told the King of Spain
his' country
claim lands
through "discovery" because that
notion only
applied to
were the true
owners ofthe
land, both
from the private and
public points
of view," the
and lawyer
could the
King's men
use force unless the Indians were
hostile to his
"friendly intentions."
The King of Spain was afunny
guy. He would send his soldiers to
deserted spots in the "New World,"
where they would read his offer of
"friendship" aloud in Spanish.
When the Indians—not being
there at the time—failed to accept
the offer, the army was free to
invade. It was the sort of ingenuity that would bring a tear to
George Bush's eye.
The attitude that has pervaded the Europeans' "acquisition" of aboriginal land was
summed up nicely 50 years ago
when the Hualpai Indians took on
the The Santa Fe Railroad, which
had expropriated their land, "the
exclusive right of the United
States to extinguish Indian title
has never been doubted. And
whether it be done by treaty, by
the sword, by purchase, by the
exercise of complete dominion
adverse to the right of occupancy,
or otherwise, its justness is not
open to inquiry in the courts,"
said the judge.
In other words: fuck you, Jack.
But "Fuck you, Jack" is not a doctrine of international law.
As Hamilton and Sinclair put
it, aboriginal peoples' "right to
self-determination precedes colonization and has never been voluntarily surrendered. There is no
evidence that Aboriginal people
were ever conquered .... Further,
international law today clearly
recognizes the right of peoples to
determine their own future."
Canada has signed the United
Nations Charter, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convenant of Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, all
three of which make explicit reference to all peoples' right to self-
determination. The UN Human
Rights Commission's Working
Group on Indigenous Populations
will soon present its declaration
on indigenous rights to the General Assembly. And the Organization of American States—of
which Canada is now a member—
is working on a declaration as
The problem is that no legislative body has the jurisdiction to
make binding decisions on international disputes. Which is precisely why the government doesn't
want to recognize the inherent
right to self-government—because
it doesn't have to.
But both the federal and provincial governments are still in a
tight spot because section 35 of
the Constitution Act affirms "existing treaty and aboriginal
Why the
First Nations
are still
by Jeff Harrington
The European nations began
signing treaties with aboriginal
peoples in the early 1600s, based
on peaceful co-existence and respect for each other's way of life.
These principles were enshrined in the Two Row Wampum
Treaty between the British and
the Iroquois Conference and represented by two rows of purple
beads on a white belt.
The beads represented two
boats, travelling down the river of
life. The British would sail in their
large ship, with their laws, customs and religion. The Iroquois
would travel beside them in their
canoe with their own ways. Neither would try to steer the other's
But the treaty didn't say the
Iroquois canoe couldn't be blown
out of the water.
At the time, the British were
faced with the military superiority of the aboriginal inhabitants
and in need of allies against the
French. So they signed numerous
treaties during the 1700s with
various nations along the east
But while the Europeans' objectives were to gain complete
control over the land, the aboriginal peoples viewed the treaties
quite differently. The Creator had
placed them first on the land, the
source of all life. They agreed to
share the land with the newcomers as they did with the animals.
They couldn't sell something they
had no concept of owning. And
they certainly didn't agree to give
up their right to govern their lives
and affairs.
After Britain defeated France,
King George III issued the Royal
Proclamation of 1763, which was
meant to keep the peace with his
powerful aboriginal allies and secure the future of his new colonies,
Quebec, Florida and Grenada.
"...the several Nations or
Tribes of Indians...should not be
molested or disturbed in the Possession of such Parts of our Dominions and Territories as, not
having been ceded to or purchased
by Us, are reserved to them or any
of them, as their Hunting
Grounds," it went.
The proclamation specified
that no new settlement outside
the colonies would occur unless
the rights to the land were surrendered in negotiations with the
As thousands more settlers
arrived, governments resorted to
the treaty process to get "free
land," which they proceeded to
sell to the settlers. The Crown
negotiators often gave the aboriginal people verbal promises
about the
that, while
are not in
the written
I n
with their
view that
the aboriginal peoples
become extinct, later
came to regard the
as relics
that could
be ignored
with impunity. They
largely correct.
the military strength ofthe various aboriginal nations declined in
the early 1800s, assimilation became the order ofthe day. Treaty
assurances were ignored, and
aboriginal people were herded on
to reserves, ostensibly to "protect"
them from land-hungry settlers.
This odious process of "civilization" culminated in the Indian Act
of 1876, the racist, sexist and paternalistic legislation that controls
the lives of status Indians to this
And to this day, the federal
government interprets treaties
narrowly, ignoring the spirit in
which they were written and the
promises remembered only by aboriginal people. On occasion, it
just ignores the treaties' existence altogether.
In 1976, the federal government dismissed a fully researched
and documented land claim by
Nova Scotia Micmacs, saying the
Royal Proclamation had been
"superceded by law." No further
explanation was given.
But the Royal Proclamation
has never been directly or indirectly repealed, and until 1982,
when the Constitution was repatriated, only the British Parliament could do so. The Proclamation is now appended to the 1982
Constitution Act.
Even before "existing" aboriginal and treaty rights were
constitutionally enshrined in
1982, court decisions had started
to take the wind out ofthe federal —-
government's sails. But since then,
a flurry of decisions have ad-^*~
dressed issues neither the federal
or provincial governments want
to think about too much.
Treaties are now to be interpreted liberally, with any doubts >._
resolved in favour of aboriginal
people. They are to-be given mod-*
ern meaning, based on the spirit
in which they were signed by the
aboriginal peoples.
In 1984, the Supreme Court
declared that aboriginal title is fc<
recognized in common law, and is
not dependent on "any other ex--*-
ecutive order or legislative provision." Chief justice Brian Dickson
noted that aboriginal title was not
invented by the Royal Proclamation, or restricted by its geographical limits. **"
And last year's Sparrow deci-*. ^
sion, elaborating on the 1984 ruling, said both the federal and provincial governments have legal
obligations to all aboriginal
peoples, not just those defined as
"Indians" by the Indian Act. *""
The Supreme Court held "the^ ^
Crown to a high standard of
honourable dealing with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada."
The ruling went on to say "existing" aboriginal rights mean
"unextinguished" rights, implying .-*■
that governments must prove they
explicitly took away aboriginal*^"
The federal government and
the provinces having been studying the implications ofthe ruling
for over a year and are still mum «.
on the subject. But judges
Hamilton and Sinclair wrote in-""
August that, in their opinion, the
provincial and federal governments are "under legally enforceable obligations to act on behalf of
Aboriginal groups and communities."
Although Ontario recently ^
recognized the inherent right to   M
self-government, the provinces are* -■
generally scared shitless about all
this. They've been using aboriginal people as doormats for a long
time and they kind of like it.
At a meeting in British Co-
lumbia in late August, Premier ^
Rita Johnston said she and the*—
other premiers had agreed to accept the concept of "Native" self-
government, but it had to be defined in detail. The same attitude
torpedoed the First Ministers'
Conferences on self-government *"
in the 1980s. -._
Which explains the
government's proposal. Ottawa
needs a package acceptable to all
the provinces, especially Quebec.
But no province will agree to a
deal that guarantees an unquali--*--
fied recognition of the right to < ^
So the government is willing
to once again sell the aboriginal
peoples down the river to save its
skin. International law does not
matter. Canadian law does not *-
matter. What matters is a package that will sell.
When Assembly of First Nations leader Ovide Mercredi rejected Ottawa's offer to negotiate
as an insult, Joe Clark said
Mercredi had to be "realistic."      „ J
Apparently, being "realistic"
means accepting government de- "'
ceit. Being realistic means accepting that the White Man still
knows what's best.
Brian Mulroney is rolling the
dice again. He has learned noth- 4
ing from Meech Lake and he has
certainly learned nothing from *
He—and Canada—will lose
this round.
Spiritual struggle waged against government oppression
by Frances Foran
Question: What does the Governments' declining support for
_—, Native issues got to do with burgeoning taxes and the federal deficit?
Everything, according to
Murray Angus, author of "..And
the Last Shall be First": Native
Policy in an Era of Cutbacks. And
— -• he wants to show that it is in
everyone's interest to promote the
ideal of a just 'alterNative' society.
The book is the product of a
study conducted by the Aboriginal
Rights Coalition (ARC), an inter-
"" church organization seeking to
build solidarity between Natives
and non-Natives to "significantly
alter the status quo".
Between a foreword from the
_., chair of the Canadian Council of
Churches and an insipid final
~~ " chapter pleading ARC's cause lies
some compelling economic analysis.
Angus says Native
programmes are the first of many
—■ casualties of the government's
long-term strategy to reduce social
spending and implement a business agenda for Canada. This process of deconstructing the welfare
state has been underway since the
'70s and will culminate under the
****    Conservatives, Angus writes.
^^ The middle class (a mono
lithic group with shared interests,
according to the author) is being
strangled by taxation and eventually will cede some programmes
whose cost outweighs the benefits
**    to themselves.
^ r Under the ideology of restraint
and increasing
economic pressure on the
middle class
the government will selectively eliminate those pro-
which serve the
politically expendable three
per cent of the
population, the
Natives, and
with public
ratification. If
these forces do
not push Native programmes over
the edge, Angus says, racism will give
them the added
In the first
chapter the
author traces
the genesis and
growth of this
process of dismantling social
Using government documents he demonstrates that global
capitalism has increased the pressure to compete for capital with
other states by providing a "profitable investment climate." The distinctly Canadian solution to competition, Angus stresses, is a regressive tax structure.
The author notes that by 1975,
69 per cent of corporate taxes collected were written off through "tax
expenditures." By 1984 loopholes
represented $9 billion dollars a
year in lost revenues.
Angus sees cutbacks as an
economic solution to a political
problem. Freeing business from a
proportional contribution to pub
lic revenue,
the ideology of
restraint and
the drive to increase competitiveness
the transfer of
the tax burden
to middle
In the
second chapter Angus
elaborates on
the effects of
cutbacks on
such as the
elimination of
core fun ding to
the Assembly
of First Nations and the
Native Communications
also cites
the transfer of
and administration responsibilities
to Natives—as a key element of
the Tory policy. This, like self-government, is the Tories' Trojan
Horse because expenditures will
increase and federal funding will
Angus effectively argues that
the Indians will be recognized as a
"distinct society" by any level of
government. Case after case details the collusion of the governments and business interests: in
Labrador, the Innu lands are used
to train Nato fighter pilots. In
Alberta the Lubicon Cree have lost
trapping as their economic base
while oil companies siphon $1 million a day from the land. And in
BC, the court declared the Royal
Proclamation of 1763 inapplicable,
and the Gitksan-Wet'suwet'en
claim to ancestral land gave way to
the interest of forestry companies
to decimate areas twice the size of
Vancouver island.
Question: What does an inter-
church group have to do with Na-'
tive interests?
Given Angus' argument that
constitutional self-government for
Natives is unlikely, one can assume that the ARC vision of an
alterNative society does not entail
changing existing laws or making
any concrete changes to the social
structure. Could it be that this
'80061/ is of a spiritual nature?
Because as damning of the
status quo as it is, the book says
nothing about praxis; and vision
without earthly change gets you
hemlock cocktails and thorny
crowns, and as the First Nations
know, systematic oppression by
legal and religious institutions.
"And the Last Shall be First"
is an informative and lucid description of Native oppression. But
justice is for the living and the
First Nations don't need to hear—
again— that their just society is in
the sky.
Native spirituality and its environmental implications
by Rev. William V. Wiegert
^   Lutheran Chaplain, UBC
Lutheran Campus Centre
«- •» Reprinted from The Hippocampus
The Legend ofthe White Buffalo Calf Woman and the Sacred
Pipe appears in a variety of versions in the oral hi story of the Lakota
Sioux. Like all Native legends, it is
~*   intended to convey truth and un-
__, derstanding. For the Native, the
sacred pipe represents the unity of
all things. It is a constant reminder
Earth and all her contents. Each
time the pipe is lit and offered to the
—» Earth and the Sky and the Four
Sacred Directions, the people are
~ * reminded that they must respect
and live in ways that recognize and
honour the interrelatedness ofthe
whole of creation.
The writings of Native people,
_r> both ancient and contemporary,
clearly indicate the centrality of
■ -->■ this understanding and the awareness of their kinship with all living
things and their intimacy with the
Earth and the environment. It is
that attitude toward nature that
informs the beliefs and practices of
*"*    the Native North American, no
^ v matter to which nation or tribe he
or she belongs.
Seattle, chief of the Suquamish
and Duwanish tribes in Washington, in a speech given in 1854 said:
"The air is precious to the red
* *    man, for all things share the same
breath—the beast, the tree, the
" * man, they all share the same
breath...you must remember that
the air is precious to us, that the air
shares its spirit with all the life it
supports...I am a savage and do not
. ^    understand any other way.
"I have seen a thousand rot-
* >   ting buffaloes on the prairie, left by
the white man who shot them from
a passing train. I am a savage and
I do not understand how the smoking iron horse can be more important than the buffalo that we kill
only to stay alive.
"What is man without the
beasts? If all the beasts were gone,
men would die from a great loneliness of spirit. For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to
man. All things are connected...
"This we know. The earth does
not belong to man: man belongs to
the earth. This we know. All things
are connected like the blood which
unites one family. All things are
That understanding of, and
belief in, the connectedness of all
things was demonstrated in a deep
respect for all of creation. It was an
understanding and abelief that was
lived out in the routines of daily
For the Native peoples this was
a spiritual matter. When one speaks
of Native Spirituality one cannot
avoid speaking about the earth and
the environment. The
interconnectedness of all of creation
was an integral part ofthe Native
peoples' philosophy and spirituality
and religion. There was no com-
partmentalization of life into the
religious and the secular. All of life
was viewed from a religious perspective. Joseph Epes Brown observes:
Tor the Indians, however, the
world of nature itself was their
temple, and within this sanctuary
they showed great respect to every
form, function and power...what is
almost unique in the Indians' attitude is that their reverence for nature and for life is central to their
The sense ofthe spiritual, then,
pervaded all of their activities and
With that kind of integration
of the spiritual into all of life, it is
difficult to understand how the
European immigrants who came to
North America could label these
people as "savages" and "heathen."
Joseph Epes Brown writes, "Reli
gion pervades all of life and life's
activities leading a native person
once to remark, We do not believe
our religion, we dance it!"
The Natives' respect for nature wasmore than just atheoretical
concept. It expressed itself in the
actions of the people. Jamake
Highwater, a Blackfoot, writes:
"My people, the Blackfeet Indians, have always had a sense of
reverence for nature that made
them want to move through the
world carefully, leaving as little
mark behind them as possible. My
mother once told me: 'A person
should never walk so fast that the
wind cannot blow away his footprints.'"
Equally as moving are the
worlds of Smohalla, a spokesperson for the Shahaptin Indians of
Washington, spoke to the white
agent who had come to tell them
how to change their lifestyle:
"You ask me to plow the ground!
Shall I take a knife and tear my
mother's bosom? Then when I die
she will not take me to her bosom to
"You ask me to dig for stone!
Shall I dig under her skin for her
bones? Then when I die I can not
enter her body to be born again.
"You ask me to cut grass and
make hay and sell it, and be rich
like white men! But how dare I cut
off my mother's hair?"
Luther Standing Bear speaks
of that deep love for the earth:
"In talking to children, the old
Lakota would place a hand on the
ground and explain: We sit in the
lap of our Mother. From her we, and
all other living things, come. We
shall soon pass but the place where
we now rest will last forever.""
I had the experience of sitting
in the lap of Mother Earth when,
several years ago, I was invited by
a Native friend to participate in a
sitting on the ground in the dark
ness and dampness and heat of that
lodge,there was anincredible sense
of connectedness to the earth. But
even more than that, there was a
profound spiritual sense of being
connected to the Creator as well, a
sense that is often missing in the
rather sterile surroundings of many
of our churches.
While the Native peoples
hunted and trapped and gathered
to supply their food needs, their
respect for the earth and its beings
influenced the way in which those
acts were carried out. Nothing was
killed or taken that was not needed
and used. John Snow writes:
"Our livelihood, our very culture were basedon the necessity for
hunting animals, but the hunt was
never for the sake of killing them.
We did not hunt for head trophies
andkill off the game in the process."
Snow notes that during the
long history ofthe Native peoples'
existence on the continent, none of
the animals which they hunted ever
became extinct. Luther Standing
Bear also comments on this fact:
"The Indian was a natural conservationist. He destroyed nothing,
great or small. Destruction was not
a part of Indian thought and acti on;
ifit had been, andhad the man been
the ruthless savage he has been
accredited with being, he would
have long ago preceded the European in the labour of destroying the
natural life of this continent. The
Indian was frugal in the midst of
plenty. When the buffalo roamed
the plains in multitudes he
slaughtered only what he could eat
and these he used to the hair and
"...I know of no species of plant,
bird, or animal that were exterminated until the coming ofthe white
man...The white man considered
natural animal life just as he did
the natural man life upon this
continent, as "pests.' Plants which
the Indian found beneficial were
also 'pests.' There is no word in the
Lakota vocabulary with the English meaning of this word."
It was notlongafter the arrival
ofthe immigrant peoples, however,
that the buffalo and other animal
life became extinct.
Another important element of
Native culture was that of sharing.
The results of the hunt were not
hoarded by the hunter. They were
shared with the members of the
tribe. That same concept of sharing
is still practiced among the Native
peoples even today. Several years
ago, while our family was attending
a powwow and we were camping
with a group of Native people in a
circle of tents and teepees, we were,
much to our surprise, gifted with
packages of steaks and pork chops,
bread, eggs, and potatoes. These
rations were provided by the chief
for everyone who was encamped
there. To refuse these gifts would
have been considered and affront to
the chief.
These were the kinds of people
that the Europeans found when
they first arrived on this continent.
They were a deeply religious and
spiritual people. They were a people
whocaredpassionatelyfor the earth
and all of her creatures and everything that grew upon her. They
were a people who shared what
they had with each other and even
with all other living beings. In sprite
of that, the Europeans believed that
they had discovered a wilderness.
Luther Standing Bear writes:
"We did not think ofthe great
open plains, the beautiful rolling
hills, and winding streams with
tangled growth, as Svild.' Only to
the white man was nature a Svil-
derness' and only to him was the
land "infested' with "wild' animals
and 'savage' people. To us it was
tame. Earth was bountiful and we
were surrounded with the bless-
... see SPIRITUALITY page 8
October IB, 1991
Songs give strength for
environmental battle
by Joanna Gislanson
A different sound rose above
Vancouver's usual rush hour roar
on the morning of September 30.
The strong voices ofthe Nuu-Chah-
Nulth people filled the intersection in front ofthe Art Gallery with
songs they have been singing since
long before car or office building
existed on what we call British
Chiefs of most of the Nuu-
Chah-Nulth tribes, Chief Miles
Richardson of the Haida nation
and Joe Matthias ofthe Squamish
nation gathered to support the Tla-
o-qui-aht and Ahousaht people.
Their songs will give them
strength in the battle that faces
When they finished singing,
the 200 Native people marched to
the BC Supreme Court house
where they began what will be a
long case against the governments
of BC and Canada.
The case is a result of
MacMillan-Bloedel's plans to log
on Meares Island (Wah nah jus/
Hilth hoo is), home of the Tla-o-
qui-aht First Nations since at least
3000 BC.
Meares Island is situated just
north of Tofino in Clayoquot Sound
on Vancouver Island's west coast.
It is 8500 acres of virtually undisturbed ancient forest. The island
supports some of the oldest and
largest cedars in the world and one
ofthe largest mud flat systems on
the Canadian Pacific coast.
Over 200 people presently live
on Hilth hoo is, the Tla-o-qui-aht
name for the island, in the village
of Opitsaht. The Ahousaht band
now lives on the nearby Flores
island but used to winter on
Meares. They call the island Wah
nah jus. Archaeologists have found
over 100 midden sites and remains
on Wah nah/Hilth hoo is dating
back as far as 10,000 years.
Such evidence merely supports what the Tla-o-qui-aht already know.
Their home's history is held
within the stories and songs taught
them by parents and elders in the
community. Rainforest, rivers and
sea are the wealth of these people.
Tla-o-qui-aht fisherman Moses
Martin describes.
"Once roamed and ruled by
such great and well-known native
leaders as chief Wickaninnish
among others, their descendants
still carry these names and to this
day still occupy Meares Island in
our traditional Native life, living
and breathing clean air and most
important, gathering of native
seafoods as yet unpolluted by any
large industries."
Before the arrival of Europeans, an estimated 70,000 people
lived along the Vancouver Island
coast. In 1792, captain John Gray
recorded that the highest concentration of Natives—five to six
thousand—lived in the area around
Meares Island.
He noted this before his decision to burn the village of Opitsaht
to the ground.
Motivated by their belief that
the Native's "pagan" souls needed
to be saved, Roman Catholic and
Protestant missionaries advised
the government on how best to
weaken the traditional Native cultures, already disrupted by the fur
trade, new technologies, alcohol
and disease.
Canadian law made the potlatch—the greatest political, religious, and social expression of their
culture—illegal in 1884 (until
Children were taken from
their homes and put in Christie, a
Roman Catholic Indian residential school at Kakawis on Meares.
The people of Wah nah jus/Hilth
hoois never surrendered their land
through any treaty or war.
Tla-o-qui-aht chiefs have been
opposed to MacMillan-Bloedel's
plans to log Hilth hoo is since they
learned of the company's intention.
On April 21, 1984, they declared Hilth hoo is a Tribal Park.
Fur furor
by Mark Chester
For many native peoples in the
northern parts of Canada, the only
means oflivelihood is the harvest of
the natural resources of their environment, including many fur-
bearing animals, that have provided
many with their only source of income for generations.
These groups ofNatives, many
of them amongst the poorest in this
country, are now feeling the pressure of calls for a boycott on fur
The appeals are based on the
cruelty ofthe methods used in capturing the animals. Leg hold traps
are not quick killers, and many
animals suffer a lingering death
while others gnaw off their own
limbs to escape. Emotional appeals
based on these images have had
some success throughout North
America and in Europe.
Milly Poplar ofthe BC Union of
Indian Chiefs says the environmental impact of native hunting
and trapping is limited, especially
when compared with the damage
done by logging roads, outside
hunters being flown in and other
commercial interests.
The Natives themselves feel
the impact when they are forced to
travel further, not only to hunt but
to carry out other activities they
depend on, such as harvesting berries, Poplar said. They are further
pressured by the creation of parks
that cut them off from traditional
hunting and gathering grounds.
According to Poplar this issue
is already causing divisions between
natives and environmental groups,
especially on an international level.
This, in spite ofthe fact that both
groups have many interests in common. The division is especially evident with the lobby to persuade the
European Economic Community to
ban the importation of furs. Native
trappers have been forced to organize nationally to express themselves.
Some environmental groups
are sympathetic to this problem.
Catherine Stuart, Greenpeace
spokesperson, said, "Greenpeace
supported the EC exemption, in
fact pushed for the exemption, on
the products ofthe indigenoushunt.
"In regard to trapping'hunting
by indigenous people, Greenpeace
will take each instance on a case by
case basis," she said.
Greenpeace will only take action if it feels a population is threatened by a non-sustainable hunt.
For many of Canada's most
disadvantaged peoples, the fur industry remains one ofthe few, if not
the only, means oflivelihood. In the
more remote areas, the only alternatives are welfare or moving away
in search of work.
Either choice amounts to cultural genocide.
"We have to remember they
are human," Poplar said.
Growing public concern about the
issue led forest minister Tom
Waterland to sponsor the Meares
Island integrated planning team.
The chiefs three representatives on the team felt that the native position was not being heard.
The seven other members of the
team representedlogginginterests
and government.
Despite the obvious imbalance
of the decision-making process,
Francis Frank, elected chief of the
Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations said,
"The Meares PlanningTeam didn't
address the needs of Native people.
The company [MacMillan-Bloedel]
had its issues addressed. We seem
to be always addressing the issues
ofthe forest companies."
On November 21,1984 Tla-o-
qui-aht people and other protestors blocked a MacMillan-Bloedel
surveying crew from landing on
Hilth hoo is. MB obtained an injunction from the BC Supreme
Court within days. The Tla-o-qui-
aht and Ahousahts also filed for an
injunction but their request was
The blockade continued and
both Natives and non-Natives were
arrested. Charges were laid only
against non-Native protestors.
Months later, the bands were
granted an interim injunction to
stop the logging activities of
MacMillan-Bloedel by the BC
Court of Appeal.
The court granted the injunctions on a split of three to two.
There is an unresolved land claim
in the Nuu-Chah-Nulth territory,
which is the western half of
Vancouver Island, adjacent to both
island and sea.
As forest is part of the claim,
the judges ruled that "property
should be preserved...until the
question [of claim] could be disposed of." Hon. justice MacFarlane
stated, "it is no ordinary logging
site. It is an island with special
values, rising above commercialism."
The case is back before the
SPIRITUALITY... from page 7
ings ofthe Great Mystery. Not until
the hairy man from the east came
and with brutal frenzy heaped injustices upon us and the families
we loved was it "wild' for us. When
the very animals ofthe forest began
fleeing from his approach, then it
was that for us the Wild Wesf
"One wonders about the attitude that was taken toward the
indigenous people of this continent.
How could the new arrivals have
been so insensitive to these people
It appears, however, that the
Native was looked upon as being
inferior. Joseph Epes Brown implies that, because the Native
peoples had a minimum of possession, the European assumed that
they were alsoimpoverishedin their
mental and spiritual achievements.
That kind of arrogance i s suggeste d
by William T. Hagan as well when,
referring to the United States
govemmenf s policy, he writes, "It
was routinely assumed that the
needs ofthe white race were superior to those ofthe Native Americans
because a prescribed area could
support more whites than Indians."
The attitude ofthe Canadian government apparently was no better.
John Snow comments, "The
government's entire policy was
rooted in the nineteenth-century
whiteman's assumption that his
own civilization was far superior to
any other lifestyle." That kind of
Child gets up-close and personal experience of
Mission International Pow-wow drum session.
courts as of September 30, 1991.
The injunction in interfering with
MB's five year logging plan and
therefore the Crown wants the injunction lifted. After opening remarks, the majority ofthe fir st five
day session was spent certifying
the affidavit of Moses Martin and
Roy Haiyupis.
Courtroom 55 was full to overflowing on the first day ofthe case.
So full that the elders and chiefs
were seatedin the jury box. Francis
Frank, elected chief of the Tla-o-
qui-aht band relays that the hereditary chiefs and elders feel that
the case is going well. There is
consensus that Madame justice
Joanne Prouse is being "as fair as
possible to all sides and seems to
racist attitude combined with the
greed for land and the accompanying resources led to the destruction
of a society that had existed and
thrived on this continent for centuries. Joseph Epes Brown writes:
"These original Americans
have had, and fortunately still do
have, great riches in human and
spiritual resources. Yet these riches
are either being swept aside and
forgotten, or are being consciously
and actively destroyed by a civilization thatisoutofbalance precisely
because it haslost those values...By
ignoring or denying the spiritual
legacy left to us by the Indians we
have contributed to their impoverishment, and we have cut ourselves
off from the possibility of an enrichment we desperately need."
Perhaps there is still time for
us to listen to them and learn from
them. They have much to teach us.
As we face the ecological crisis
of our age, we need to reexamine
our attitudes and priorities. We
must seek to understand our own
place in the whole of creation. As we
do that, it might be well for us to
look, too, at the relationship to
Mother Earth and her creatures
which the first peoples of this continent lived and practiced. While we
certainly cannot return to the way
of life that existed before the European immigrant arrived in North
America, we can find clues for es-
tablishingabetter relationship with
the earth. We can learn how to
respect and treat the gifts of creation. We can discover a sense of
be trying to get the full story."
The chiefs and elders will stay
in the courtroom for the durations
ofthe case because they feel that it
is important that Madame justice
see for herself who her ruling will
affect. "She is ruling over the lives
of our hereditary chiefs" says
Francis Frank. "For MB it's just
about trees. They are operating
solely on a monetary system. We
have a different philosophy, based
on our spiritual beliefs and practices."
Anyone wishing to watch the
proceedings in courtroom 55 is encouraged to do so. As Frank says,
"This is not just a Native issue but
an issue that will affect non-Natives as well."
the spiritual in developing a sense Vs*
of God's imminent presence in the
created world. T.C. McLuhan
"It is well understood that the
only decent future for us who live in
America now is through a rediscov-   *-
eryofour environment. We need to ^_
establish a right relationship with
the land and its resources; otherwise, the destruction of the Indian
will be followed by the destruction
of nature; and in the destruction of
nature will follow the destruction of   *•*
"The Indians, in a sense, knew *""
this all along. For many generations they learned how to live in
America, in a state ofbalance; or, as
a Christian would say, in a state of
grace. Perhaps now, after hundreds   ^
of years of ignoring their wisdom,
we may learn from the Indians."     -wj
Joseph Epes Brown echoes those    ;
"If we can understand, however, the truths the Indians find in
their relationship to nature, and
the profound values reflected by *
their many rite s and symbols, then ^
we may become enriched, our understanding will deepen, and we
shall be able to give to the American
Indian heritage its rightful place
among the great spiritual traditions
of humankind." <
Theirs is a rich heritage! Fortunately for us, there has been a *
revival of interest among contemporary Native peoples in their culture and spirituality. Perhaps it is
not yet too late for us to learn too.
October 16,1991 FILM FEST
idjust your set
id to get into a theatre, they're
ing to be there for a while, so
-iy not just let things just
>wly seep together?
ftth the prevalence
f video cameras and
slevisions and VCRs
tiey have become
lore and more part
f our subconscious
£ay of relating to
nje another.	
rie ofthe questions after the
reening was about the
dge"philosophy in your
• People living on the edge is
i interesting concept—the edge
"vJhat? In The Adjuster, I
ink ifs the edge of a normal
hat is normal in this film?
At one point, Noah [the
aurance adjuster in the film] is
ing through one ofthe burnt
rt'houses with one ofthe
laracters and she asks, "Why
e we doing this? Why are we
-evaluating these things? Why
e we trying to get it all back?"
^says, "So you can put things
ick to normal," and she says,
S/kat is normal?" He says, "Ifs
hat you need to make you
:lieve that you're functioning in
e right way." Well, that's a
ry tenuous notion.
he was one ofthe only
laracters that I found a
nship to. This woman who
alked around from room to
x>m watching the fire
<nsume her house.
Yeah. As Noah keeps saying,
everyone in the film is in limbo.
And she's in limbo too, but it's
quite clear why she's in limbo.
And she's glad to be there. That
idea of putting someone over the
edge is thrilling as a concept.
Noah's family are like suburban
vagabonds. These people who
have a suburban house, but
because ifs in the middle of
absolutely nothing it becomes
this transitory wagon. Ifs no
more secure or permanent than a
tent in some ways. They're sort
of suburban bedouins.
All of your films have this
connection with voyeurism
and this concept of everyone
watching television and
watching everyone else the
way one watches TV.
With the prevalence of video
cameras and televisions and
VCRs they have become more
and more part of our subconscious way of relating to one
another—or maybe not so
subconscious. It becomes almost
effortless to become a different
person. When you say, "I love
you" is it really possible to
conceive ofthe notion that you're
not somewhere in your mind
playing back every film clip or
every television show where
someone has said "I love you"?
Aren't you in some way judging
your own performance?
You don't want to think
about that too much or else you
drive yourself crazy, but the
mind has such a tremendous
capacity to absorb things. And
since we're living in such an
image-saturated society we must
have absorbed so many things
that we're not even aware of.
Teenagers talk turkey
by Carta Maftechuk
REMEMBER junior high,
and a burning desire to
somehow or other get a car, get a
boyfriend, find some fan? Were
you happy in school, or did you
have trouble staying in it at
all? Talk 16 documents the
experiences of five young
women who have a lot to say
about being teenagers.
Talk 16
Meet Lina, Erin, Rhonda,
Astra and Helen. Directors
Janis Lundman and Adrienne
Mitchell interviewed many
people before choosing the five
to follow their lives over the
period of one year and soliciting
their opinions on topics ranging
from boyfriends to feminism.
The viewers' moods constantly swing from shock to
sympathy with a good mixture! of
laughter. When the directors ask
Astra about her religion, she says
she doesnt think satanism is
really a religion. She is a contrast
to Helen, a born-again Christian
who is concerned that if she
hangs around with "non-believ
ers" too much, their attitude will
rub off on her.
The five are as different as
possible. Erin's parents have a lot
of money and dont hesitate to
provide her with luxuries, while
Astra moves between home and
apartments with various
boyfriends. Rhonda talks about
being Black and touches on the
racism she experiences, Helen
has a 6 pm curfew set by her
Korean parents trying to control
her relationships with boys,
and Lina relates the tale of
how she got poison ivy while
losing her virginity.
According to Mitchell,
making the film gives young
women a voice which they
currently lack in contemporary media. Ihe end result
avoids stereotyping teenagers in any way, and is fun to
Talk 16 was preceded by a
short called Did You Do the
Napkin Tops? directed by Lisa
Doyle. The segment is a great
seven-minute "rant* on how
much of a drag it is to work in a
boring, dead-end end job.
An odyssey Down Under
by Karlyn Koh
I HIS IS a homecoming with a
-JLdifference. After a few years
away, Frank Hill returns to New
Zealand to look for his ex-
girlfriend, Paula, and the son he
has never seen.
Little Frank
Little Frank charts his
journey through the wild country
and small towns ofthe South
Island of New Zealand, which
proves to be a visual feast. What
this low-budget film lacks in
technical finesse, it makes up
with witty dialogue, quirky but
fascinating characters and that
quintessential Kiwi flavour.
Counterbalancing Frank's
pursuit is the search by Carol
and her son, whom Frank meet
in his trek across the island.
They are looking for King's Rock,
the elusive spot from which they
were instructed to throw the
ashes of a deceased grandfather.
Both parties encounter disappointment and false alarms
before their respective quests are
The bigger theme is about
family, and reconciling one's
present and future with one's
roots. Frank has visions of his
son and Paula beckoning him to
follow them, complemented with
several flashbacks of his childhood. Both the visions and the
flashbacks are filmed through
blue blocker lenses, and this
surreal and dream-like effect is a
strong contrast when juxtaposed
with the present day scenes.
Director Catherine
McDonnell does not develop the
themes fully, and concentrates
instead on the eccentric characters and breathtaking landscape.
One gets a sense of the
quintessential Kiwi—unassuming, down-to-earth and drily
humourous. The characters and
events are depicted with detailed
observation of life Down Under,
without any frills. McDonnell is
uncompromising, and the ugly
side ofthe society and Frank's
life (he was taunted in school
and deserted by an abusive
father) is shown without judgements being passed. And always
present is that Kiwi attitude of
"shell be alroight, mate," and the^
passage of life continues.
Schmoozin' and boozin'
by Cheryl Niamath
THE BEST thing about the
Vancouver International
Film Fesf s 10th anniversary
gala Saturday night was the
Latin American mambo band
that had us dancing up the
Hotel Vancouver escalator.
Unfortunately, the band
was stuck in a corner next to the
women's washroom, far away
from the balloon-filled ballroom
where all the industry-types
were schmoozing, and was
drowned out by a bad early-
eighties rock 'n' roll combo.
And you should have seen
what people were wearing.
Tuxedos with snakeskin boots.
Sequinned dresses with necklines dipping to bellybuttons.
Short short short little skirts
with rhinestone shoes. Pink
feather boas. It was amazing.
You'd think that with so
many "entertainment people"
crammed into such a (relatively)
small space, lots of exciting
things would happen.
They didn't.
People ate and drank (some
more than others), they talked
and danced, and everyone
seemed to be having a good
We spent a lot of time
wondering who we were looking
at, and if they were famous. And
then we met Seijun Suzuki, one
of Japan's top directors. He
talked with us for a while, and
smiled a lot and shook our
hands and overwhelmed us with
his intelligence and kindness.
The gala followed a screening of Jodie Foster's new film,
Little Man Tate, at Vancouver
Centre (don't believe what the
TV commercials tell you).
It was vaguely disturbing to
watch people in tuxedos and
sequins and velvet being
entertained by a story about a
waitress with not enough money
struggling to give her son the
> 7 year-old genius, and Jodie Foster is Dede, his
otis, entertaining, albeit predictable flick
">rhape the picture the little aHenated Einstein in
October 16,1991
candidates for
Point Grey
On Thursday, voters across BC decide who
will represent them in the provincial legislature. In UBC's riding ofVancouver-Point Grey,
we are no different, as six candidates want
your votes on October 17.
In order to help our readers, The Ubyssey
has interviewed all the Point Grey candidates:
Barry Burke ofthe Liberals, independent Betty
Green, Nicole Kohnert of the Green party,
NDP MLA Darlene Marzari, Libertarian Joan
Saxton and Richard Wright ofthe Socreds.
Candidates were asked the following
1. What is the most important issue of this
2. Why should UBC students vote for you?
3. How should we alleviate overcrowding and
lack of accessibility at UBC and elsewhere?
4. What should the provincial government do
to make education more affordable to BC students?
5. What sorts of things would you like to do for
the riding before the next election?
Follow up questions, where applicable,
were asked. We have attempted to give generally equal space to each candidate.
The interviews were conducted by Ubyssey
news writer Rick Hiebert,
Nicole Kohnert, Greens
Nicole Kohnert, like many of her
colleagues in the Green Party, is running not so much to win, but to take
a stand for environmental issues.
"I would say that the most important issue should be the environment because that haze that we see
over the city over there (pointing towards downtown Vancouver) is not
going to go away. It will only get
worse," Kohnert said.
"Although the day to day issues
are very important, when are we going
to start prioritizing the environment?" she asked.
Kohnert is a bio-resource engineer. She graduated from UBC this
past spring.
"It looks like the NDP will be the
next elected government and a vote
for the Green Party will tell them
that we are all concerned about pollution abatement, the environment
and other ecological issues."
Being a recent grad of UBC, she
is very opinionated about this campus.
"Students here are swamped
with the system that we have and
there is no spiritual content, as it
were, in our course, so it is very hard
to get UBC students to care. UBC is
so very alienating."
"Ifs obvious that students want
to be educated and we should ensure
that they are, but don't necessarily
give them this present system of
education as their only choice. The
Green Party advocates decentralization ofthe post-secondary educational
system. We need to have more com-
munityinvolvementin education and
we need to work with experts to see
what should be done," Kohnert said.
She supports the government's
initiative to promote education and
build more campuses outside the
Lower Mainland.
"It seems that every year it costs
students more to keep these higher
institutions going," she said. "Australia and some European countries
offer post-secondary education for free
and perhaps we should find out how
to do that. That is one of our goals—,- -
to work towards free tuitions."
"Where would the money come
from? That is a good question. But
shouldn't we be trying to find that
Kohnert is not writing her vie-v
tory speech. "I haven't thought that L. _
would be elected, actually. I would
want to represent the people of Point
Grey as well as I can, jcommunicate
with them and try to learn from what
they have to say."
"I guess that I am running for *
this reason. I want to help the people^
in their riding realize that having
information about these issues is vital and that the environmental crisis
we are facing will not go away," she
Joan Saxton, Libertarian
The Libertarian candidate in
Vancouver-Point Grey says the environment and education are "the really
invaluable things in society."
Joan Saxton, a retired secondary
school teacher who is now engaged in
law research and study at UBC is
holding up the standard ofthe party
and movement which believes that
"government is best that governs the
Libertarians are running about
a dozen candidates for MLA in this
"The main issue in this campaign
is the individual versus the state. We
have too much of a 'government knows
best' attitude in this province and
people's rights dont count enough,"
Saxton said.
"The less interference in an
individual's life the better, but we
will step in to ensure the individual
acts fairly in his relations with others."
"I guess I am a well-rounded
person," she added. "A good representative is someone who has a lot of
experience in a lot of different
situations....I think in global terms
in politics as well as locally."
Saxton, a long time member of
the provincial Liberal party, decided
to become a Libertarian after the
government expropriated a Whistler
resort she owned for a park, although
not all of the land is currently used
for a park.
"People from municipal government have had a taste of power, of
using people's tax money. All three
leaders come from that sort of mindset
and we need people who are willing
to give the power back to the people."
Saxton feels that education is
much too expensive and that the
system needs to be changed.
"There is a lot of waste. If I were
younger, Td like to head a team to go
through our post-secondary system
and make it more efficient," she said.
"Education at UBC should in
volve using teams of faculty leaders
to go out into the community and
educate others, to use their knowledge ^
to make government and business
better. They really should be sharing!.-,
their knowledge."
"In the '80s, I was out at UBC
and I understand just how expensive
education is. That should be changed."
She added that the environment .
would be one of her priorities as an
MLA. When she was a Liberal, she*,
proposed the party motion that
eventually resulted in the creation of
the provincial Ministry of the Environment, and ecology is still one of
her concerns.
"We should look into cleaner en- —
ergy and we have to work at cleaning, _,
up our oceans as we have to save
them for our future," she said. "We
are not protecting them, in fact we
are doing the opposite."
"We have to have people studying the environment."
SUB Concourse, UBC Oct 21 -25
October 16,1991 rtllliiViiiYiiiV--J"---*^-^--^^--J--JP'--■«•-■•. ■*•»-	
Darlene Marzari,
New Democrats
Darlene Marzari expects to
win another term on Thursday and
her party's polls appear to bear her
So, if she wins another term
' as MLA (she was first elected in
1986), what should we expect from
She said the NDP would steer
all transfer funding into health
and   education
' and work on
daycare, for student and faculty
parents and revamp the student
loan programme.
"The   NDP
■ will fund health
and education
with transfer
payments and not
highways as the
Socreds have,"
she said.
"The NDP
has positive policies that believe
in young people
and I hope that
UBC students recognize that.
"We need to revise loans and
grants and bring them in touch
with student reality, not a
bureaucrat's reality; we shoul d also
spread out facilities and degree
granting facilities to meet the demand for access."
"Weshouldalso balance UBC's
drive to become a post-graduate
' research facility by offering financial incentives for undergraduate
arts and sciences," she said.
Marzari says she will fight to
keep tuitions frozen until the "student loan programme is straightened out."
Marzari knows that although
the NDP may want to do a lot of
things, the budget may prove a
restraining factor.
"The sky is the limit on what
we want to do. What is constraining us is the budget. Our first bud
gets will be difficult to live with,
but when you talk about post-secondary education we have to participate in planning with faculty,
administrators and of course, students to reform the system. We
have to emphasize empoweringthe
She also supports taxing companies on what
they earn each
year, not the
value ofthe land
that their business sits on.
For the
riding, Marzari
supports a
housing plan
that perhaps
uses part ofthe
Jericho Lands
owned by the
Department of
would like to see
that the university   becomes
more involved
in the community, not in a corporate sense, but
in social issues like housing where
they can do something and offer
resources in new ideas. UBC should
be encouraged to deal with the
problems of their community in a
humane way," she said.
"I would like to see people feel
proud of their government again,
feel that they can feel proud ofthe
people that are representingthem,"
Marzari said, adding that she will
try to be accountable to the ri ding's
population, even if she is part of an
NDP cabinet.
"We really need honesty and
integrity in government," she said.
"We intend to bring in strict conflict of interest legislation, a freedom of information act and tough
disclosure legislation for MLAs.
People have the right to know that
their politicians are accountable,"
Marzari said.
Betty Green, Independent
Independent Betty Green
thinks that morality is the most
important issue in this campaign.
"I think people are tired of
-w people who put their party and
their political jobs ahead of their
_ v principles. People are losing all
trust in the political process and
they think that people are running
for the best job they have ever had
in their lives," Green said.
Green, who heads Vancouver
Right to Life, said she was impelled
to run, because there weren't
people that she would feel comfortable in supporting electorally.
"If they elect someone to represent them, they have to believe
that that person is a person of
their word," she said.
Green has lived in the riding
for 32 years and believes that education is important.
"I have the greatest regard for
higher education," she said. "I
support what the government is
doing, the right thing, when they
open new universities and colleges.
Accessibility is important."
She is also concerned by the
cost of a university education.
"When my own kids were going to university, they could work
their way through university and
it is the cost of university today
that makes it impossible for people
to get an education."
"There does seem there is a lot
of spending that is unnecessary at
UBC, such as their large building
programme," she said. "There does
seem to be lot of money floating
around for administrative positions and luxuries instead of the
basics of higher education."
She thinks that is symbolic of
a larger problem.
"My personal goal is to have as
least government as possible. A
major part of the problem is that
60 per cent of our income is taken
before we see it. When government
takes so much, when tax funds go
to the government, it means that
the cash gets sucked in in various
levels of bureaucracy and it does
no significant help for the people
in our society that should be
helped," she said.
The Ubyssey is now accepting position pa-!
pers for the two positions of office j
ombudsperson. The staff of The Ubyssey will |
choose two people, one woman and one man. j
Applicants should know how The Ubyssey j
works, be kind, gentle and wonderful, unlike I
the last two doofuses we had. Post your I
position paper real soon. More info to come. '
Sub241k 228-2301J
Fall Savings
on    *
286 20MHz 4MB SYSTEM
With Monitor
- 1 MB RAM
- 20 MHz clock speed
- Slim Line Case
286 26 MHz 45MB System $868
386 25MHz
With Monitor
■ 1 MB RAM
- 25 MHz cbck speed
- Expandable to 8MB
- Mini-Tower case
- Magnavox .42 VGA Monitor
- OAK VGA (256K, 8-bit)
- Licensed AMI BIOS
- 101-Key enhanced keyboard
- 45MB Fujitsu hard drve (25ms,
- 1.2 MB - 5 1/4" floppy drive
Combined fioppy/hard controller
Serial/Parallel ports
- User's technical manuals
1 Yr warranty parts/labour
Customized configuration	
386SX 16MHz 46 IB SYSTEM
With Monitor
- 1 MB RAM
- 16 MHz clock speed
• Expandable to 4MB
- Slim Line Case
386SX 20 MHz 45MB System $996
386C 33MHz
With Monitor
- 1  MB RAM/64K Cache
- 33 MHz clock speed
- Expandable to 8MB
- Small Footprint Case
486 33MHz
With Monitor
- 4 MB FIAM/64K Cache
- 33 MHz clock speed
- Expandable to 16MB
- Mini-Tower case
-1024*768 resolutions
- OAK VGA (512K, 16-bit)
- Samtron SC-428 VS VGA Colour
- 14* Monitor w/tilt & swhrel
- 28mm dot pitch
#6 1551 Southerland ave.
V1Y 5Y7
FAX#   862-8083
Out of town Call Collect
2162 Western Parkway
V6T 1V6
FAX#  228-8338
10746 King George Hwy.
V3T 2X7
FAX#  584-8383
OPEN: VAWSURREY Mon-Fri 9:30 to 5:30 / Sat 10 to 4 / Closed Sunday - KELOWNA Tues-Fri 9:30 to 5:30 / Sat 10 to 4 / Closed Mon & Ti.es
UBC Student Counselling
& Resources Centre
Room 200, Brock Hall
Mon - Thu:    8:00am - 6:00pm
Friday: 8:00am • 4:30pm
All workshops are from 12:30-1:20 p.m.
October 17 Strategies for Empowering Women
October 18 Cults: Their Appeal, Their Design
October 21 Time Management
October 22 Test Preparation
October 24 Be Who You Are: Self Esteem for Women
October 28 Improving Concentration
October 29 Goal Setting
October 31 Combatting Student Blues
Wednesday 12:30-1:20 p.m.
October 16 Anorexia and Bulimia
October 23 To a Safer Place
October 30 Stress Management
Workshops Conducted at International House
Thursday 1:30-2:30 p.m.
October 24 Class Presentation Skills for International Students
October 16,1991
THE UBYSSEY/U ................—...,«...,.
the Ubyssey
Richard Wright,
Of Von CXcxve. ;About
Tke SnvWonmeni,
AJative Rigkte,
True Equality,
"True Democracy
This   Election
Green   Party
D1 OhmcM CM** Vern
r, VSL Ml Phww: *»*-l1«S
Unique Traditional Cliinr*''
>    Cooking .in Campus        <■*
nn caili pick up orders.
2U2 Western Parkway,
University Village
Your undergraduate degree
will get you started.
Enrol in a three-semester qualifying program at
McGill, follow through with three terms in tax
specialization, and you'll be ready for a career as a
tax practitioner — a profession much in demand by
chartered accountancy firms, legal firms, and
This McGill program is unique in Canada and leads
to a Graduate Diploma in Taxation. You have the
choice of taking it on a full-time or part-time basis,
and of starting a semester in either January, May or
Thursday, 24 October 1991
1:00 to 3:00 p.m.
Henry Angus Building
Room 213
McGill University
Department of Chartered Accountancy
(514) 398-6154, Fax (514) 398-4448
Redpath Library Building, Room 211
3461 McTavish Street
Montreal, Quebec
Centre for
33!i!i ir
The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican), in Pointe
Claire, Quebec, and in Vancouver, B.C., offers project-oriented summer jobs in
1992 to undergraduate students in science* and engineering**, who are
graduating in 1993 or 1994. These jobs will be of particular value as training for
students who are planning careers in research, and are open to students eligible
for Industrial Undergraduate Student Research Awards from the Natural Science
and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). For students receiving
scholarships, the Institute will supplement these so that total salaries will be
commensurate with education level and experience.
Please send your resume along with an NSERC application form (form 202)
and a copy of your latest transcripts, before November 29,1991 to:
Mme Sylvie Labossiere
Associate Administrator, Education
570 St. John's Blvd.,
Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9
* e.g.. Biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, physics,
"e.g., Chemical, electrical, mechanical, physics
N.B. Eligibility conditions are described in pamphlets available in University
department offices.
Richard Wright thinks he falls
in the centre ofthe political spectrum.
Tm a small T liberal actually," he said. "I decided to run for
Social Credit the day after this
summer's leadership convention.
There were a lot of gray hairs at
the convention and the party obviously needed a lot of youth and
people with new ideas."
When not running for the
Socreds, he imports school and office supplies. He graduated form
the University of Manitoba in 1985
with a BA in Political Science and
"The maintenance of our social
services is the most important
thing to do for preserving our fu-
■ ture. We are under attack from the
federal government with the cuts
in Established Program Financing transfer payments to BC,
Alberta and Ontario, and health
and education are being hurt," he
"The 1990s has to be an era of
responsible action against social
problems. I would love to be able to
write a blank cheque, but as a
society we can't do that. It's like
maxing out on your Visa credit
card," Wright said, adding that
priorities in social programmes
should be set.
He suggests that certain ar
eas of health and education should
be given highest priority, such as
waiting lists for critical surgery,
care for seniors and basic literacy
Wright says that he can understand students.
"I am in tune with student
needs because I am a recent graduate from university. I know what it
is like to struggle through university underfunding. I worked in
summers as a painter and I sold
enough suits at Eaton's to clothe
half of Manitoba. I know how it is."
Wright is skeptical of the
NDPs promises about tuition fees.
He argues for beefing up student
loans "to ensure that all can go to*"
school." He supports more colleges .
and universities outside the Lower
Mainland, and also likes matching grants that allow the provincial government to match public
donations to colleges and universities. >—
"You should really encourage
programmes like matching grants'"
that reward efficiency and goal
setting," he said.
As far as the Point Grey riding
is concerned, Wright is supporting
a park along the Arbutus CP rai^
corridor from Granville Island to
Richmond and a bike trail fronr-
East Vancouver to UBC. He also
supports community involvement
in planning and major construction projects.
"These are modest environmental goals and the sort of thing"
we should be looking at." >, <_
"We should also be encouraging UBC to put affordable housing
on campus. It could be done through
matching grants or through the
Ministry of Social Services and
Housing. There may be lH
programme there that will tackj^.,
that student need and it should be
Barry Burke, Liberal
Barry Burke is really ticked
off about social funding, or rather
the lack thereof.
"The most important issue is
the lack of funding to all social
ministries, especially medical
programmes and education. All
three big parties are promising to
correct this, but we are the only
party that is going to correct this
by streamlining government operations in general," he said.
Burke, a carpenter and small
businessperson, is the second
candidate for the Liberals. He replaced Robert Proburko, who
dropped out in the first week ofthe
He thinks UBC students aren't
naturally socialists.
"UBC students and young
people in general should graduate
into a stable economy and an NDP
government can't provide a stable
economy. Their policies don't encourage private investment and
foreign investment as much as the
Liberal party does."
"The NDP isn't quite an ex-
tr emi st party, but they have veered
farther to one side than we have.
We are more moderate."
Although his party is just
getting its act together regarding
education policy, Burke has several ideas.
"We don't want to allow the
increase of tuition. We would freeze
them for a year till we have had a
look at the books. It's fair for tuition to rise at the rate of inflation,
but the government needs to provide more of the accessories for
education such as lab equipment,
funding for libraries and such."
He said the Liberals intend to
get more cash for social
programmes through making the
government more efficient.
Burke likes the idea of building more campuses for universi
ties and colleges also, but warns
that any programme directed at
improving accessibility must address the Lower Mainland "where
the problem is worst."
"Universities are top heavy
with administrators. We also need,.,
to work on finding professors that
are good teachers. Published aca***
demies are fine, but I believe that
university faculty are there for
teaching and enlightening students, not just to bring glory to the
institution," Burke said.
"We should also resolve the
issue of illegal suites in Vancouver^,
once and for all. I think that it is a
community matter and that it i£-*
time to tell the city to either shit or
get off the pot regarding this issue," Burke said. "If it is their
policy to shut them down, the
community should work with tha
provincial government to buila
student housing on campus."     v -
When asked which ofthe other
two parties he would support in a
minority balance of power situation, Burke said, "Fm not running
to support either the Socreds or
the NDP. As for the rest of us, that^
is something we as a caucus would} „
discuss after the election. It all
depends on the election results and
which party offers us things closest to our platform."
Iff                   I          J           3
1    k     M ill li*
M         2\K  l.     \l\'     'Oil A    IWl 1   <r
ffiji<J£   3*^,thrrfcl
bc*r*j2y  Squirrel
October 16,1991 All nature's
I am not
what they portray me.
I am civilized.
I am trying
to fit in this country.
meet me halfway—
I am today's Indian.
—Ri ta Joe
The white man's spirit can
never become the red man's spirit.
It doesn't want to. But it can cease
to be: the opposite and negative of
the red man's spirit. It can open
out si new great area of consciousness, in which there is room for the
red spirit too.
—D. H. Lawrence
I think native people, and par-
ticularly native artists, have
something to say about what direction we should take to ensure
the earth survivesfor another 2,000
—Tomson Highway
Canadians! Do you love your
land? Maybe we all have to, at
least a little bit, go Native. Have
you noticed how Native people are
involved in every environmental
issue? That's not because they're
bleeding-heart liberals; that's because it's always happening right
in their own back yard. It's
happening in our yard too. We are
all today's Indians. We are the new
Natives. This is our Canada. This
is our planet. We have to love real
estate less, and love the land more.
When children get completely
out of hand, their mother spanks
them. I do not want to be spanked
by this planet.
Thank God, the military part
ofthe complex seems to be going;
now lefs re-examine the industrial
part. We all have to look back in
order to keep moving forward. We
can learn from the First Nations
people, but I don't think it is fair or
wise to just sit and wait for them to
save us. If we do that, by the time
we catch on, it will be too late.
Jim Maloney
Arts 4
The Ubyssey
is meeting today in
SUB 260 at 4:30
Bring your gripes, complaints, questions for a
hearing. All are welcome to
sit-in on meetings.
For dates of future meetings contact The
Ubyssey (SUB 241K) or the AMS
Ombudsofffice (on the SUB Concourse).
Hey sport!
Want to do more than just sit on the sidelines? Cover
the sports on campus for THE UBYSSEY.
There is always a game going on somewhere.
Do some serious Bird watching!!!
855 GRANVILLE ST 684-4000
UBC is on
our list.
This week's Maclean's features a Special Report on Canada's universities —
including an authoritative ranking of all universities, based on
an exhaustive analysis by Canada's Weekly Newsmagazine.
Where does UBC rank on Maclean's list?
Find out today Our rating of the all-stars and the also-rans, plus insightful
reporting on the state of post-secondary education in Canada, appears in the
October 21 issue — on a newsstand near you now!
Call The Ubyssey at 228-2301 or drop by the office,
SUB 241 K.
October 16,1991
THE UBYSSEY/13 The colour of
politics and
Around election time, politicians
publicly dabble in cultural ceremonies as
they aggressively campaign for the
"ethnic" vote. But like the latest
"multiculturalism" report in Tuesday's
Vancouver Sun, "ethnic" is inaccurately
becoming a label for non-white.
However contradictory, identifying
and counting candidates of Chinese or
South Asian ancestry is patronizing and
only emphasizes how political parties
are satisfied to have token representatives, and to simply maintain the structure of the dominant culture.
Socred candidate Sheila Page may be
the first Chinese-Canadian to be elected
to the provincial legislature if she wins
on October 17, but she says she did not go
into politics to be an ethnic representative. Just as one person of colour should
not be expected to represent all, one
South Asian person should not be asked
which way the Indo-Canadian community will vote.
Page and other Chinese candidates
are quoted as attributing the lack of political involvement by Chinese-Canadians to traditional, cultural background.
These statements and their media coverage reinforce the idea that people of colour are solely responsible for getting
involved, without examining the systemic
racism that undermines the individual's
sense of political accessibility.
It is not enough to say nominations
are open to everyone and parties do not
discriminate, as party director of communications says. 	
October 16,1991
The Ubyssey is published Tuesdays and Fridays by the
Alma Mater Society ofthe University of British Columbia.
Editorial opinions are those ofthe staff and not necessarily those of the university administration, or of the
sponsor. The Ubyssey is published with the proud
support ofthe Alumni Association. The editorial office is
Room 241K of the Student Union Building. Editorial
Department, phone 822-2301; advertising, 822-3977;
FAX 822-6093
The Ubyssey is a founding member of
Canadian University Press
Beauty Tips for Modern Leftist Losers.
A rabbit outfit is a fashion staple Carla Maftechuk limply cannot do without. Raul Peschiera
requires steel tips for his pointy elf shoes. Oxygen equqrment for Yggy King is a must so the
blue tint of hypoxia from lack of oxygen at high altitudes finally goes away. The other
Matthew, a sailing ship tattoo would be simply to die for. Chung Woog needs no beauty tips
whatsoever. But maybe he should shave "Show us what your momma gave you" onto his
head. Ricky Hiebert, prescription padded pale blue jock straps are YOU. Morgan Maenling,
invest in some velvet cone bras. And get rid of that wicked, ugly stepmother. Don Man, Santa
may bring you a home yoghurt facial kit (peach is best). Ross before a photo, Lynne Jorgesen.
Lisa Tench, to draw attention up from those stunning calves, we recommend snail shell
earrings with the snail still in them. Frances Foran, you can bring out your eyes by using a
little mini-plunger. ElaSine Griffith, your image would surpass superlative with a gold cap
on one of your teeth. Massive liposuction wouldn't hurt either. Suzanne Johnson will be
radiant on National Upside-down Day where one inverts one's wardrobe about thehorizontal
midline of the body. Indulge in a gentle miso massage for the scalp, Joanne Nelson. Mark
Chester, stop borrowing your brother's appearance and emphasize the ankles. Ellen Antoine,
if ears are a problem to you, tuck Them in. Johanna Oislanson, look to Gumby and Pokey for
the latest in foot fashion. A white polyester suit awaitsthe Paul Gordon in Fashion Hell. Jan
Forcier, you will be charming in a see-through body suit with a spikey collar and codpiece!
Effiefow.sublimiiudself-hyprosu tapes areavailable to rid yourself of undesirable habits—
perfectforthose fits of narcolepsy.Karlyn Koh, foryou is Obsession for Sloths. Oreg Davis,
extensive body piercing would work wonders,but meanwhile those 'bums are wicked. Mark
Nielsen could really use a new set of eyelids that havethe capacity to close. Ted Ing, darling,
try powdering that shiny forehead. Luap Dayson would do well to add a little colour to his
wardrobe besides the usual rigor-morte pallette. Amulti-coloured,glow-m-the-dark,batlery
operated bustier impatiently awaits in the closet of Cheryl Niamath. Tarie Chan, you had
better get that tattoo removed immediately. You know the one. Sam Green is obvious lyindire
desperateneed of an extra-longferret named Snuggles. Sharon Lindores will soon needapajr
of tall black Editor Boots. Conform or be cast out! A tip-to-toe Nair bath awaits the hairy
Matthew Johnson. A large bottle of Vis ine for Steve Chan. And Ellen Pond, a feathered boa
would come in handy forthosemarathon grape stomps. Martin Chester needs to floss his toes.
Paul Dayson • Sharon UndortM • Carta Maftochuk
Raul Paachlara • Effla Pow
Photo Editor • Paul Gordon
Native lutM Coordinator • Elalno Qrtfftth
Co.*.  You   *1®-"
o e> •»»
* a 0
CcU\   Tell The   DrWWrencc
t* « O   <>    0
^ <^
Bread of life
not for sale
To The Ubyssey:
Bill Denham may be
surprised to hear that a fellow student on campus is a
Gideon, (letter 27/9/91). May
I set the record straight?
First, I doubt Bill purchased three copies of the
New Testament; Gideons
International give away one
million copies worldwide
every ten days but NEVER
sell any!
Gideon was an Old Testament character who was
involved in distributing food
to his hard pressed countrymen who were being besieged and starvedby enemy
forces. Modern Gideons distribute a book that has been
spiritual food to generations
of people.
Is the moral content of
Jesus' sermon on the mount
Matthew 5-7,vague and
ambiguous? Did his story
end in tragedy or triumph?
Is he dead or alive today?
Will he visibly return to
The answers are inside,
Bill, so keep on reading!
Nicholas J. Wilson
Pay up
There's been lots of talk
re: Canada's debt. Jason
Ford and Greg Freeman will
be pleased to hear that I too
learned that debt is like deferred taxation. That was in
However, it was in sociology that i learned that
10% of Canadians own over
50% of Canada's private assets—something they didn't
mention in economics.
Putting two different
classes together, I have come
up with the radical, mind-
boggling conclusion that the
debt could easily be paid by
these richest 10% of Canadians. Today.
John Lipscomb
This letter is to the attention of the person with
the neato-mosquito car
alarm who parks his or her
The Ubyssey welcomes letters on any Issue. Letters must be typed and are not to exceed 300 words In length. Content
which Is Judged to be libelous, homophobic, sexist, racist or factually Incorrect will not be published. Please be concise.
Letters may be edited for brevity, but It Is standard Ubyssey policy not to edit letters for spelling or grammatical mistakes.
Please bring them, with Identification, to SUB 241k. Letters must Include name, faculty, and signature.
car somewhere outside of
the Gage South Tower, but
could also be applicable to
others with car alarms:
We would like to thank
you for providing us with
hours of listening entertainment. We really have
nothing better to do while
studying than to listen to
the multi-sounds that your
car alarm makes. Between
1:30pm and 4:30pm today,
we have heard your alarm
go off at least eight times.
Personally, we prefer the
police sirens. It's a matter
of preference, we suppose.
A couple of points to
note, however:
(1) Although we have been
hoping that your battery
would (make that nine
times) die, we certainly have
not been looking out the
window, worried that
someone is breaking into
your car. Actually, it would
be quite nice indeed if
someone did steal your car,
just so that we would not
have to listen to your car
alarm all day long.
(2) We realize that you may
be worried about the safety
of your car and possessions,
but it seems very unlikely
to us that there have been
nine attempted break-ins
into your car in the space of
three hours. Perhaps you
may try a lower setting so
that the alarm does not go
off if someone breathes near,
or when something moves
within 50 meters of your car.
(3) Please think ofthe poor
suckers that must listen to
your car alarm for hours on
end. We are also on the sixteenth floor, so we wonder if
the others who live on lower
floors appreciate your alarm
as much as we do.
(4) Think about it. What
exactly is the point of having a nifty car alarm if it
constantly goes off? Have
you ever heard the story of
the boy who cried wolf,
where he blew (make that
ten times) his whistle so
many times that after a
while nobody really cared if
he was eaten?
Tanya Rothe
Lynn Belanger
Chem Eng 3
P.S. While editing this letter, your car alarm has gone
off three more times, making a grand total of thirteen
times in 3 hours and 7
minutes. Thanks again.
was that funny!
In the September 27
Ubyssey, I had the pleasure
of reading a very witty and
articulate "book review" of
the Gideons' New Testament, which was a refreshing change from the series of
complaints one is usually
subjected to in the Ubyssey's
letters section. I was amused
(but not very surprised) to
findalengthy, point-by-point
criticism of the review in a
following issue (Oct.8) of
The Ubyssey written by
Colin Mills. I have this to
say to Colin: grab a sense of
humour, Colin—IT WAS
Steven Cavers
Arts 3
Lighten up for
Christ's sake!
Dear Mr. Colin Mills:
Denham's letter to The
Ubyssey (Sept.27) was ajoke!
You know, somethingfunny.
Someone who doesn't see
this, yourself for example,
must have quite a large telephone pole stuck pretty far
up their butt. If we can't
make fun of things then life
becomes incredibly boring.
Humour is good for you so
lighten up and start enjoying
life before someone smacks
Eric Hudson
Science 3
These days finding the
UBC Weightroom is as elusive as looking for a book in
main library. The two are
both unquestionably frustrating. In the past eight
months, the Campus Recreation UBC Weight room has
moved four times. Presently
the weightroom is housed at
the Armouries, but it is
slated to move back to War
Memorial Gym before December. This situation has
frustrated the membership
of 2,500, comprised of students, faculty, off-campus
patrons, as well as varsity
atheletes. According to Recreation UBC's Director,
Sonya Lumholst-Smith,
"The recreational and social
network provided by the
weightroom center is unparalleled by anything of its size
on campus."
With membership on
the increase and a new fee
structure for the new season, it would appear that
more and more people on
campus are being made
aware of the 'quality product" that Rec UBC is promoting. Lumholst-Smith
further adds, "it is truly sad
that the addition of newer,
high tech machines have
been compromised, due to
reduced spatial and safety
limitations at War Memorial
Gym." This situation could
be remedied by a health promotion centre that would
also allow for increased
The idea of a multi-use,
health promotion facility
centralising campus
aerobics, the weightroom,
the huge martial arts
programme, computerized
strength testing and a new
boxing agility programme is
a tantalizing one. With the
current shortage of facilitates
on campus the renovation of
the Curling Rink at the
prime location for a user
intesive facility of this nature. Sadly the proposal for
this idea fell through in the
Campus Recreation
UBC truly needs to find a
niche. "The programme is
already established but we
are spread all over the campus and are unable to develop further due to lack of
space. What we really need
to do is consolidate Campus
Recreation acti vites and free
up the space we currently
use for the use of
intramurals, student clubs
and athletics." Other great
universities like Toronto
have recognized the need for
"total health." It's time that
we students join together to
establish UBC as not only
an "academic leader"but also
a university which is sin-
cerelyinterstedin the health
and fitness of its population.
Chris Pryce
Phys Ed. 4
October 16,1991 LETTERS
Debt due
to spending
-^_       Stiflingmyrevulsion, Ipicked
up a copy of The Ubyssey from
■""•Friday, October 11, only to discover, in the very first article, the
most absurd and nonsensical
statement I have ever encountered.
'    In an article on cuts to government
Lspending, Cheryl Niamath makes
'the claim that "the government is
(tutting social programmes in order
to reduce the federal deficit, but
only six per cent of the debt is a
result of government spending."
I must confess that the
meaning of this statement totally
■"''escapes me. How could it possibly
^^e that "...only six per cent ofthe
debt is a result of government
spending?" The reason we have a
debt at all is that the government
spends money. By definition, one
hundred per cent of the debt is a
result of government spending!
The study that Ms. Niamath
cites "...blames 44 per cent ofthe
debt on tax cuts to corporations
and the wealthy." Try to grasp the
logic of this argument: the reason
L  the government owes as much
fcmoney as it does, is not because it
■    spends money on its various
rprogrammes, but because it has
reduced the amount that it steals
from its citizens.
This is completely ridiculous.
Let's wake up and face reality. The
^government does not create wealth,
it merely redistributes it, and you
SBfcannot spend more than you have
produced. Those who advocate
greater and greater spnding on
government social programmes
must recognise that this can only
be achieved by higher taxes to everybody.
What we really need is to radically reduce the size of government by restricting it to its proper
functions. This is the only way we
can truly achieve prosperity.
Keith Lockitch
Physics 3.5
Debate catfight
tres gauche
The CBC media panel (the Sun's
Vaughan Palmer will never become a TV star!) of the so-called
debate, that turned out to be a
fiasco because the format wasn't
followed and things got out of
control resulting in a screaming
match by Rita Johnston and Gordon Wilson and resulting in no one
hearing or understanding anything, was a disgrace.
Be honest now—would you really want either of those loudmouthed duo representing you—
Michael Harcourt was dismayed and bewildered as were
hundreds of thousands of others
who appreciate the art of debating—and saw none.
The CBC media panel was
clearly the big loser.
The big winner was the Green
Party. If I were them I'd march
right backinto court—and demand
my money back!
Before there is a first provincial election TV debate in BC would
it be too much to ask that the
media fully understand the
meaning of the word debate?
Mary J. Prinz
upstarts start
with us.
The E. & J. Gallo Winery offers a Sales Management career that's
perfect for upstarts. You get thorough training to get you started on
the right foot.
Your responsibilities grow as fast as you grow.
Fast enough, in fact, for even the most impatient of upstarts. Today, stop by the Career
Planning & Placement Center and find out
more about why upstarts start - and - stay with
Halloween! @ Room 109 ANGUS, Thurs. Oct. 31/91   1:00 - 2:30 pm
Nov. 20/91 in ANGUS Rooml59
(all day)
Sign up for both at the Commerce Placement office.
earn up wi
rth a
CP Rail, Canada's largest privately-owned railway, didn't just happen.   It took the commitment,
dedication and professionalism ol thousands ol men and women with talent, vision and ingenuity
to build the company into a major lorce in the transportation industry.
ope you are one
We're looking for enthusiastic, top-notch people with
a husiness degree--MBA, HBA, B. Comm., Marketing,
Finance or Economics—who want to team up with our
marketing and sales professionals.
Come and meet us.
We'll he on campus OctoLor ?lst.
At CP Rail, positions are open to all qualified individuals. Women, aboriginal peoples, persons with a disability and
members of visible minorities are specially encouraged to apply.
us in the Student -Union Building IVIain Concourse
October 16,1991
October 16,1991


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